HDFS 311 Notes, week 2
HDFS 311 Notes, week 2 HDFS 311
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 311 at Colorado State University taught by Jaime Marie Rotner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Individualism and Interdependence - Individualism- learning to stand along • • Self sufﬁcient • values of independence and self expression - Values of individualism VS collectivism or interdependence • Israel- completing military service • Argentina- being able to support a family ﬁnancially • India and China- being able to support their parents ﬁnancially • What could mean adulthood in America varies compared to other countries • Emerging adulthood is only considered in places that allow “pushing back” of adult responsibilities - In developed countries, female age of marriage is higher than in developing countries and typically for males the median is around the same just a year or two higher but the same correlation applies for developing and developed countries Chapter 2- Biological Foundations - Puberty- the body undergoes a biological revolution that dramatically changes the adolescent’s anatomy, physiology, and physical appearance Derived from the latin word “pubescere” which means to “grow hairy” • - The Endocrine System - glands—> hormones—> travel by blood—> development or functioning/ behavior • Gradual increases in production of GnRH (gonadotrophin- releasing hormone) • Our body has to reach a certain threshold of body fat to trigger the process • Fat cells produce leptin that provides the signal to the hypothalamus • Hormonal changes being in the hypothalamus (increase in hormones) Increase in the GnRH affect the pituitary gland • • Pituitary gland releases gonadorophins • Gonadotropins (FSH and LH) stimulate the development of gametes(egg cells in the ovaries and sperm in the testes) - Observable body changes • Stimulation from FSH and LH released by pituitary —> gonads increase production of sex hormones (estrogens and androgens) • Estrogen increases by 8 times during puberty • Androgens and Testosterone increase by 20 times during puberty - Physical Growth during Puberty - boys and girls have about the same pattern of growing although girls usually start earlier so boys end their growth spurt later in puberty - Not all parts of the body grow at the same pace - Asynchronicity- means that we grow from the outside in which explain the “gangly look” in early adolescence - Sex Characteristics - Primary sex characteristics- directly related to reproduction growth of all of the sex organs and production of sperm/eggs • - Secondary sex characteristics- not directly related to reproduction, but visible indicators of emerging ability to reproduce • deepening of voice, hair everywhere • seat glands increase production • skim becomes rougher • enlargement of breast - Facts about Women - Women are born with about 400,000 immature eggs in each ovary, this drops to about 80,000 by puberty - Once a girl reaches her ﬁrst menstrual period (menarche), one egg develops into a mature egg ovum) about every 28 days - Females release about 400 eggs over the course of their reproductive lives - Facts about Men - Males have no sperm in their testes when hey are born and do not produce any until they reach puberty - Average age that sperm production begins is 12 years old - There are between 30 and 500 million sperm in the typical mail ejaculation, which means they produce millions of sperm everyday - Females recognize the sperm as a foreign object which is why so many are ejaculated so that at least one of them will make it through all the barriers - The order of Pubertal Events and Secondary Sex Characteristics - Girls • 1. Downy pubic hair • 2. Appearance of breast buds • 3. Growth spurt • 4. Growth of sexual reproductive organs • 5. Menarche (ﬁrst menstrual cycle) • 6. Secretion of increased skin oil and sweat • 7. Development of underarm hair - Boys • 1. Growth of testes • 2. Appearance of pubic hair • 3. Growth spurt • 4. Increased growth of penis • 5. Deepening of voice • 6. Secretion of increased skin oil and sweat • 7. Development of facial hair - Cultural Differences is Pubertal Timing - Kikuyu in Kenya • Boys begin puberty before girls - African American Girls • 50% start as early as 8 in comparison to 15% of white girls starting that early - Chinese Girls • Pubic hair develops 2 years after breast buds, basically around the same time as the ﬁrst menstrual cycle - Given similar environments variation in the order and timing of pubertal events appear to be due to genetics - The environments adolescents experience differ greatly both within and between countries - Environmental factors that impact pubertal timing • Diets and level of nutrition Food production • • Access to medical care - Ellis and Grarber (2000) found that a history of psychopathology in mothers results in earlier pubertal maturation in daughters • looking at mood disorders (#1 was depression) of the mother and its effect on daughters’ onset puberty • This effect is mediated(explains the correlation) by discordant family relationships (stress) and father absence/ stepfather presence- high levels of conﬂict inﬂuenced the mood disorder which was leading to early onset puberty - Belskey et al. found that (2007) negative parenting is correlated with earlier menarche Speciﬁcally harsh control • • Also found parent-child conﬂict and coercion predict earlier pubertal timing for boys and girls • Early parental involvement regulates timing (Romans et al., 2003) - Early Maturation- Girls - The effects of early maturation is especially negative for girls - At risk for a variety of problems • Depressed mood (feeling comes and goes) • Negative body image • Eating disorders Substance use • • Delinquency • School problems- missing schools, lower grades, tardiness • Conﬂicts with parents - Long term effects • they are more likely to get married earlier and start families earlier as well as have a greater chance of experiencing social and emotional problems - Late Maturation- Girls - Tend to have fewer problems compared to early maturation - Problems • Teasing Negative body image (during years when other girls have begun to develop) • • A growth spurt later tend to be taller and leaner on average - Early Maturation- Boys - The effects of early maturation tend to be positive for boys - Favorable things • More favorable body image • Higher popularity - Not favorable risk factors • Substance use • Delinquency Early sex • • Emotional distress
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