Biology 101 Week 1 Notes (Chapter 1)
Biology 101 Week 1 Notes (Chapter 1) BIO 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Biology Chapter 1: Evolution I. Adaptations to life result from evolution a. Process of change that transforms life on Earth i. Ex: dandelion seeds are blown by wind b. Occurs to populations not individuals c. Ongoing process d. Typically adaptation for survival II. Biology – scientific study of life a. Biologists ask: i. How does a single cell develop into an organism? ii. How does the human mind work? III. Characteristics of life a. Energy processing b. Order c. Evolutionary adaptation d. Regulation e. Reproduction f. Response to environment g. Growth and development IV. Bio is a single subject on a huge scope a. 5 unifying themes i. organization ii. information iii. energy and matter iv. interactions v. evolution V. Life is studied at different levels of biological organizations a. Cells are the building block of life and the smallest organization b. All food is ultimately produced by photosynthesis c. Moleculesorganellescellstissueorganorgan systemorganismspopulations communitiesecosystemsbiosphere VI. Emergent Properties a. Result from the arrangement and interaction of parts in a system b. Characterize nonbiological entities as well i. Ex: bicycle emerges when parts are together c. Reductionism – reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study i. Ex: studying molecular structure of DNA helps us understand the chemical basis of inheritance d. To explore emergent properties, biologists complement reductionism with systems biology, analysis of the interactions among the parts of a biological system VII. Structure and function a. correlate VIII. Life a. Emergent property of highly organized matter of cellular organization, the living state of matter, which is charazterized by metabolism IX. Cells a. Eukaryotic – membraneenclosed organelles, with the largest being the nucleus b. Prokaryotic – single cell with no membranebound organelles X. Evolution a. One idea that makes logical sense of everything known of living organisms b. Scientific explanation of unity and diversity living things i. Organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors ii. Evidence supports evolution c. Domain eukarya includes all eukaryotic organisms d. 3 multicellular kingdoms i. plants – produce food ii. fungi – absorb nutrients iii. animals – ingest food e. some eukaryotic organisms were originally in protest kingdom, recent trend to split protists in different kingdoms XI. Diversity of life a. Unity underlies diversity of life i. DNA is the universal genetic language common to all organisms ii. Unity evident in much of cell structure XII. Darwin a. Natural selection b. Fossil and other evidence prove evolution c. Published “on the origin of species by means of natural selection” in 1859 i. Two main points: 1. Species showed evidence of descent with modification from common ancestors 2. Natural selection is the mechanism behind descent w modification d. Darwin’s theory explained the duality of unity and diversity i. Ex: birds share the same parts and ancestors but have different abilities and forms e. Natural selection – many examples that stem from genetic changes in populations i. Adaptations caused by survival, typically demonstrated in physical characteristics 1. Used in two senses a. Getting fitter to be in environment 2. Bat wings – adaptation developed over time XIII. The Tree of Life a. Unity in diversity arises from descent with modification i. Forelimb of bat, human, horse, and whale flipper – share skeletal structure ii. Fossils provide additional evidence of anatomical unity from descent with modification b. Darwin proposed – natural selection could cause a common ancestor to produce two or more descendent species i. Ex: fins species of the Galapagos islands descend form a common ancestor c. Evolutionary relationships are often illustrated in tree diagrams XIV. Studying Nature a. Science – to know in Latin b. Inquiry is the search for information and explanations of natural phenomena c. Scientific process – making observations, forming hypotheses, testing i. Making observations 1. Biologists describe natural processes 2. Based on analysis of data (recorded observations) a. Qualitative data – recorded descriptions b. Quantitative data – numerical measurement d. Inductive reasoning draws conclusions through logical process of induction e. Repeating specific observations makes generalizations f. Hypothesis – tentative answer of a wellframed scientific questions i. Rational accounting for a set of observations ii. Leads to predictions that can be tested by making additional observations or performing experiments g. Deductive reasoning: i. General premises to make specific predictions ii. Initial observations may give rise to multiple hypotheses iii. Cannot prove a hypothesis that is true, but testing it can increase confidence iv. Premise – previous statement or proposition form which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion h. Questions that science can’t address i. Hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable 1. Ex: a hypothesis that ghosts fooled with the flashlight cannot be tested 2. Supernatural and religious explanations are outside the bounds of science i. Flexibility of the scientific process i. Scientific method is an idealized process of inquiry j. Case study inquiry – look at experiment on ppt in blackboard k. Experimental variables and controls i. Controlled experiment – experimental group is compared with a control group ii. Ideally experimental and control groups differ in only 1 factor under investigation – test one variable at a time l. Theories in science i. Theory 1. Broader than a hypothesis 2. General, can make new testable hypotheses 3. Supported by large body of evidence m. Building on work of others i. Scientists check each other’s claims with similar experiments ii. If results are not repeatable, claim is revised iii. Not unusual for many scientists to work on same research questions n. Science, tech, and society i. Goal of science is to understand natural phenomena ii. Goal of technology is to apply scientific knowledge for a purpose iii. Science and tech are interdependent iv. Bio marked by discoveries, tech marked by inventions 1. Combo of science and tech has dramatic effects on society
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