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Geology Lab Notes, Week 2

by: Brandon Notetaker

Geology Lab Notes, Week 2 GEOS 1111L

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Geology > GEOS 1111L > Geology Lab Notes Week 2
Brandon Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover what we went over in the lab, and notes for our reading assignment.
Geology Lab
Josh Stokes
Class Notes
Geology, lab, Mineral




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 1111L at University of Arkansas taught by Josh Stokes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Geology Lab in Geology at University of Arkansas.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
Geology Lab week 2 (Week of 8/29/16)  Chemical Elements – The most fundamental substances into which matter can be  subdivided by chemical means  Atom – The smallest particle that possesses the properties of a particular element  (nucleus consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons)  Protons – Positive electrical charge  Neutrons – Electrically Neutral  Electrons – Negative electrical charge  Ions – Atom is electrically neutral because protons equal neutrons  Anion – More electrons than protons. Negatively charged.  Cation – More protons than electrons. Positively charged.  Ionic Bonding ­ Bonded by electrostatic force. Most common type of bonding in  minerals.  Mineral – Naturally formed, solid, chemical substance having a specific composition  and a characteristic crystal structure. They make up the Crust and Mantle of Earth.  Crystallography – The study of crystal structures, and deals with the principles of  geometry  Magnetism ­ Physical force which can attract or repel objects  Ferromagnetism ­ Magnetic attraction of iron­bearing minerals   Magnetite ­ Strong magnetic attraction (The only strongly magnetic mineral)  Metallic – Luster characteristic of metallic sulfides  Galena ­ Lead Sulfide  Pyrite ­ Iron Sulfide  Non­Metallic ­ Glassy, earthy, dull   Fluorite ­ glassy  Limonite ­  earthy  Talc ­ dull  Chapter 3 Reading Assignment Pages 56­59 (Pay attention to cleavage, know some minerals that have cleavage, study the 7  Physical Properties we discussed in class, and know the specific hardness of the “Tools” we  discussed) Identifying Minerals 1. Crystal Form – External manifestation of an internal crystal structure. Mineral must grow free of obstruction in magma or a water filled cavity. 2. Cleavage – If there is breakage in a mineral it will produce a smooth plane. Within  transparent and translucent minerals, cleavage surfaces are visibly repetitive and  penetrative. Ex: Biotite and muscovite micas, Orthoclase, Hornblende, Galena, Calcite,  Flourite) 3. Fracture – Minerals without cleavage a. Conchidal – Smoothly produced fracture (Broken Glass) b. Uneven – Unevenly produced fracture 4. Luster – Mineral reflects light a. Glassy – Ex: Quartz b. Metallic – Characteristic of metallic sulfides 5. Color – Least diagnostic property of a mineral. Color of mineral 6. Streak – Color of a streak 7. Specific Gravity (SG) ­ Ratio of weight to volume in comparison with water (higher  SG=higher density) a. Density – Weight per unit volume of a substance 8. Feel – Ex: Soapy 9. Taste – Ex: Halite (salt) 10. Magnetic Quality – Magnetite is the only strongly magnetic mineral 11. Hardness ­ A mineral’s resistance to abrasion  a. Mohs Hardness Scale ­ Scale of well­known minerals. Scale of 1­10. b. Tools for testing Hardness ­ Streak plate (7) ­ Glass (5.5) ­ Steel nail (5) ­ Copper  penny (3.2) ­ Fingernail (2.2) Pages 60­61 (Familiarize yourself with the Table 3.3, and start making a list of  descriptions/properties to use on the Exams)


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