Geology Lab Notes, Week 2
Geology Lab Notes, Week 2 GEOS 1111L
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 1111L at University of Arkansas taught by Josh Stokes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Geology Lab in Geology at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Geology Lab week 2 (Week of 8/29/16) Chemical Elements – The most fundamental substances into which matter can be subdivided by chemical means Atom – The smallest particle that possesses the properties of a particular element (nucleus consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons) Protons – Positive electrical charge Neutrons – Electrically Neutral Electrons – Negative electrical charge Ions – Atom is electrically neutral because protons equal neutrons Anion – More electrons than protons. Negatively charged. Cation – More protons than electrons. Positively charged. Ionic Bonding Bonded by electrostatic force. Most common type of bonding in minerals. Mineral – Naturally formed, solid, chemical substance having a specific composition and a characteristic crystal structure. They make up the Crust and Mantle of Earth. Crystallography – The study of crystal structures, and deals with the principles of geometry Magnetism Physical force which can attract or repel objects Ferromagnetism Magnetic attraction of ironbearing minerals Magnetite Strong magnetic attraction (The only strongly magnetic mineral) Metallic – Luster characteristic of metallic sulfides Galena Lead Sulfide Pyrite Iron Sulfide NonMetallic Glassy, earthy, dull Fluorite glassy Limonite earthy Talc dull Chapter 3 Reading Assignment Pages 5659 (Pay attention to cleavage, know some minerals that have cleavage, study the 7 Physical Properties we discussed in class, and know the specific hardness of the “Tools” we discussed) Identifying Minerals 1. Crystal Form – External manifestation of an internal crystal structure. Mineral must grow free of obstruction in magma or a water filled cavity. 2. Cleavage – If there is breakage in a mineral it will produce a smooth plane. Within transparent and translucent minerals, cleavage surfaces are visibly repetitive and penetrative. Ex: Biotite and muscovite micas, Orthoclase, Hornblende, Galena, Calcite, Flourite) 3. Fracture – Minerals without cleavage a. Conchidal – Smoothly produced fracture (Broken Glass) b. Uneven – Unevenly produced fracture 4. Luster – Mineral reflects light a. Glassy – Ex: Quartz b. Metallic – Characteristic of metallic sulfides 5. Color – Least diagnostic property of a mineral. Color of mineral 6. Streak – Color of a streak 7. Specific Gravity (SG) Ratio of weight to volume in comparison with water (higher SG=higher density) a. Density – Weight per unit volume of a substance 8. Feel – Ex: Soapy 9. Taste – Ex: Halite (salt) 10. Magnetic Quality – Magnetite is the only strongly magnetic mineral 11. Hardness A mineral’s resistance to abrasion a. Mohs Hardness Scale Scale of wellknown minerals. Scale of 110. b. Tools for testing Hardness Streak plate (7) Glass (5.5) Steel nail (5) Copper penny (3.2) Fingernail (2.2) Pages 6061 (Familiarize yourself with the Table 3.3, and start making a list of descriptions/properties to use on the Exams)
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