Week 2 book notes and Lecture notes
Week 2 book notes and Lecture notes CFD 1220
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie hull on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CFD 1220 at University of Central Missouri taught by Dr. Hartenstein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Child and family develoment at University of Central Missouri.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
8/22/16 CHAPTER 2 – GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FOUNDATIONS Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Genetic Foundations ■ Chromosomes: store and transmit genetic information ■ Genes: segments of DNA located along the chromosomes ■ DNA: substance of which genes and mademosomes are Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Content of a Single Human Cell Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 1 8/22/16 Meiosis Process of cell division used to create gametes (sex cells) ■ Halves the number of chromosomes normally present ■ When sperm and ovum unite, zygote will have 46 chromosomes again. ■ Ensurestransmission of a constant quantity of genetic material Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Meiosis Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Twins ■ Fraternal/Dizygotictwo zygotes, or fertilized ova ■ Identical/ Monozygoticone zygote that divides into two individuals Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 2 8/22/16 Maternal Factors Related to Fraternal Twinning ■ Ethnicity ■ Family history of twinning ■ Age ■ Nutrition ■ Number of births ■ Fertility drugs and in vitrofertilization Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Patterns of Gene–Gene Interactions Alleles inherited from the parents are either dominant or recessive, determining: ■ Physical traits ■ Disabilities anddiseases Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Dominant–Recessive Inheritance Figure2.3 Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 3 8/22/16 Genomic Imprinting andMutation Imprinting ■ Chemical marker that activates either father’s or mother ’s gene ■ Often temporary Mutation ■ Sudden,permanent change in a DNA segment ■ Can occur spontaneously or be caused by hazardous environmental agents Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Mutation SomaticMutation: ■ Normal body cells mutate, an event that can happen at any time inlife. ■ The DNA defect can eventuallybecome widespread enoughto cause disease or disability. GermlineMutation: ■ Takesplace in the cells that give rise to gametes ■ DefectiveDNA is passed on to thenext generation. Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Sex Chromosomal Disorders Disorder Description Treatment XYY syndrome Above-average heighNo special treatment largeteeth. Normal necessary. intelligence and sexual development. TripleX Tall.Impaired verbalSpecial education for syndrome intelligence. Normalverbal ability problems. (XXX) sexual development. syndrometer distribution. Impairstimulate sexualto (XXY) verbal intelligence.development; special Incompletesexual education for verbal ability development. problems. Turner Short stature; webbeHormone therapy to syndrome neck. Impaired spatistimulate physical growth (XO) intelligence. Incompand sexual development; sexual development. special education for spatial ability problems. Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 4 8/22/16 ReproductiveChoices Genetic counseling helps couples assess risk of hereditary disordeand choose family goals accordingly. Options: ■ Conception—knowing risks ■ Reproductive technologies ■ Adoption Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Prenatal Diagnostic Methods ■ Amniocentesis ■ Chorionic villus sampling ■ Fetoscopy ■ Ultrasound ■ Maternal blood analysis ■ Preimplantation genetic diagnosis Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Fetal Medicine ■ Can result in complications, the most common being premature labor or miscarriage ■ Surgery ■ Blood transfusions ■ Bone marrow transplants Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 5 8/22/16 Genetic Engineering Human GenomeProject ■ Researchers have mapped the sequence of all human DNA base pairs. ■ Working on identifying all genes and their functions ■ Thousandsof genes are already identified, including thoseinvolved in disorders of the heart, digestive system, blood, eye, and nervous system, and manyforms of cancer. New treatments under development include genetherapy andproteomics . Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Adoption Adopted children show more learning and emotional difficulties: ■ Early stress and conflict -ridden relationships ■ Children and adoptive parents less alike in intelligence and personality ■ Age at adoption can influence difficulties. With sensitive caregiving, most children ultimately fare well. Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved ReproductiveTechnologies ■ Donor insemination and in vitro fertilization – Ethical concerns: post -menopausal childbearing, “designer babies” – Designer Babies ■ Surrogate motherhood – Ethical concerns: Exploitation of financially needy women, insecurity of surrogate’s own children – Cost of IVF Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 6 8/22/16 Environmental Contexts for Development ■ Family ■ Socioeconomic status ■ Affluence/poverty ■ Neighborhoods ■ Schools ■ Cultural context Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Family Influenceson Development Direct ■ Two-person relationships Indirect ■ Thirdparties Adaptingto Change ■ Changesfrom within and outside the family Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Socioeconomic Status andFamily Functioning ■ Timing ofparenthood and family size ■ Values and expectations ■ Communicationand discipline styles ■ Childrens cognitive development Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 7 8/22/16 Worldwide Education of Girls Most children not enrolled in schoolare poverty-stricken girls. Educating girls improves: ■ Children’s cognitive and literacy development ■ Family health ■ Mother–child interactions Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Worldwide Education of Girls (continued) The UN reports that educating girls is the most effective means of combating: ■ Poverty ■ Maternal and child mortality ■ Disease ■ Gender inequality ■ Economic and social instability Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Affluence Affluent parents: ■ Oftenphysicallyandemotionally unavailable ■ Make excessive demands for achievement Affluent children: ■ Poor academic achievement ■ Alcoholand druguse ■ High levelsof anxiety and depression Eatingmealswith parentscan reduce Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 8 8/22/16 Poverty ■ 22% (14.5 million)U.S. children live in poverty – Ratesincrease among ethnicminorities ■ More likely to suffer from: – Lifelong poorhealth – Poor academicachievement – Mental illness – Impulsivity, aggression, antisocial behavior ■ Homelessness Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Neighborhoods ■ After-school programs and clubsare important to low-SESchildren. – Increased self-confidence – Better school achievement ■ Attendance at neighborhood programsisoften hindered by violence. ■ Family –neighborhood tieshelp parents. – Parental self-worth – Parental access to information and services – Child-rearing support Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Schools ■ Parent–school contact is important at all ages. – High-SES parentsare more likely to beinvolved. – Low-SESand ethnic minorityparents may feel uncomfortable orhave less time. Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 9 8/22/16 TheCultural Context ■ Culture shapes everyaspect of daily life. ■ Cultures vary in val; U.S. culture emphasizes independence , self-reliance, and privacy of the family. ■ Subcultures, including ethnic minority groups, often have cooperative family structures Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved Individualismversus Collectivism Individualism ■ People concerned with own personal goals ■ Value independence Collectivism ■ People concerned with group goals over individual goals ■ Value interdependence Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved U.S.Public Policy Shortcomings ■ Children without health insurance ■ Substandard child care ■ Weak enforcement of child support payments ■ Poor vocational preparation for non - college-bound youths ■ High schooldropouts Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 10 8/22/16 Efforts to Improve Children’s Condition ■ 1989 Convention on the Rightsof the Child(UN General Assembly) ■ Influential interest groups ■ Children’s DefenseFund ■ National Center for Children in Poverty Copyright © 2016 Laura E.Berk.AllRightsReserved 11
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