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## Lab 2 Answers and Studyguide

by: nako.nako.nako

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# Lab 2 Answers and Studyguide SCI 1101

Marketplace > Kennesaw State University > SCI 1101 > Lab 2 Answers and Studyguide
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COURSE
Science, Society & Environ I
PROF.
Professor Kay Abikoye
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
7
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency - Mode: a value that appears MOST FREQUENTLY in the data set. (It does not have to be near the center of the data set, it just has to be the most common) Data sets can have more than one mode if 2 or more values appear  the same number of times. Ex) Data set: 97, 93, 90, 88, 88, 85, 83, 82, 77, 75, 74, 71, 69, 66, 59 Mode: 88 - Median: a value that occurs in the MIDDLE of the data set.  If the data set contains an odd number of values, the median will be the middle value Ex) Data set: 97, 93, 90, 88, 88, 85, 83, 82, 77, 75, 74, 71, 69, 66, 59     Median: 82  If the data set contains an even number of values, median will be the value half way between the two  Ex) Data set: 97, 93, 90, 88, 88, 85, 83, 82, 77, 75, 74, 71, 69, 66     Median: (83+82) / 2 = 82.5 - Mean: “average of the data set” (Sum of all values) ÷ (number of values) Ex) Data set: 97, 93, 90, 88, 88, 85, 83, 82, 77, 75, 74, 71, 69, 66, 59 Mean: (97+93+90+88+88+85+83+82+77+75+74+71+69+66+59) ÷ 15 = 79.8 - Outliers: values that fall well outside the range of the other values in the data set Ex) Data set: 97, 93, 90, 88, 88, 85, 83, 82, 77, 75, 74, 71, 69, 66, 17 Outlier: 17 - Modes, medians, and means all have shortcomings, and the choice of the most appropriate statistic depends  upon the data set. Measures of Dispersion - Range: describes the highest and lowest values in a data set. Ex) Data set: 97, 93, 90, 88, 88, 85, 83, 82, 77, 75, 74, 71, 69, 66, 59 Range: 97 ­ 59 2 2 2 {(data point1−mean ) +(data point2−mean ) +(data point3−mean )+… - Variance:  ¿ ¿} number of values−1 - Standard Deviation: square root of variance. Ex) Data set: 97, 93, 90, 88, 88, 85, 83, 82, 77, 75, 74, 71, 69, 66, 59 Standard Deviation: 10.8 ND - Calculator: STAT ­> ENTER ­> type in values ­> STAT ­> 1:1­Var Stats ­> 2  ­> 1 ­> ENTER - Sx = Standard Deviation - Data that have a bell­shaped distribution when plotted are said to have a "normal" distribution. A normal  distribution is symmetrical, with the majority of the points near the center (mean) and fewer as you progress  away from the center.  - we can conclude that about 68% of the data points will fall within one SD of the mean (area indicated in red),  95% will fall within two SD's of the mean (red area + green area), and 99% will fall within three SD's of the  mean (red area + green area + blue area).  Table - Each table is numbered sequentially - Descriptive title that includes both independent and dependent variables. - Equally spaced cells & column and row headings should stand out against the data - Units of data identified Figures (Illustrations, diagrams, maps, graphs) - Illustrations can be used to identify structures in an organism, or to show a new species or experimental  apparatus. - Diagrams are often used to show the relationship between variables in complex systems, or to visually depict a chemical reaction or other sequence of events. - Maps are most commonly used to show the locations of sampling sites when experiments are conducted in the  field.  - Each figure is numbered sequentially, beginning with Figure 1. - Descriptive title - The illustration/diagram/map should be of high quality and appropriate size.  Graphs - Independent variables on x­axis (ex. Time) - Dependent variables on y­axis - Scale doesn’t have to start from 0. It should start slightly below lowest value and slightly above highest value  Bar Graph  Useful for graphing non­continuous data. Ex) Different experimental groups  “error bar” is appropriate when graphing a group’s mean; add to data points or bars on a graph that  indicate the standard deviation of the data.  Line Graph  Useful for graphing continuous data. Ex) data related to time  Scatter Plots  Useful for graphing 2 variables against each other to determine their relationship.  Positive relationship (upward slope), Negative relationship (downward slope), Unrelated  “Best­fit­line” should go through all of the points.

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