Audio Setup and Mixing Week 1 notes
Audio Setup and Mixing Week 1 notes JMC 33032
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Hoover on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JMC 33032 at Kent State University taught by Scott Hallgren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
8/30/16 Sound can KILL you if it's too loud or there's too much pressure. Think of how bombs work: low frequencies at high amplitudes are the definition of concussive force The four characteristics of sound: Amplitude: volume, level Frequency: pitch Timbre: tone color Envelope Noise is something that is also important in sound. Digital sound is an analog waveform encoded in 1s and 0s Sampling - taking a waveform and chopping it up into time blocks Quantizing - putting those time blocks in order Bit rate: resolution of digital audio/number of steps per second (more bits = more dynamic range) CD quality is 16/44.1 (16 bit depth, 44.1 kHz sampling rate Professional minimum is 24/48 (24 bit depth, 48 kHz sampling rate) File formats: .wav and .bwf .bwf format allows insertion of metadata for identification, .wav doesn't Microphones: first device in the audio chain -Transducers: change sound into electrical pulses Types of mics: -Dynamic - paper cone moves a magnet through electromagnetic induction -Ribbon - expensive and delicate mics, rarely seen -Condenser - uses electrostatic system, acts like a capacitor (gold disc) Requires 48v of power, either through a battery or through phantom power transmitted from the sound board/camera/phantom power pack through the XLR cable Directional response: On-axis means that the source angles directly into the diaphragm Polar patterns Omnidirectional (picks up in a circle): Bidirectional (figure 8, front and back, used for interview mics back in the day): Cardioid (heart shaped): Hypercardioid (mushroom shape, picks up mostly in the front but a little bit in the back): Frequency response Frequency response curve of a mic is its output over the audible range Flat frequency response – equal at most, if not all levels. Desired for all audio equipment. Rumble: high levels of low frequencies. Use a shock mount on your mic to avoid Proximity effect: stuff around you can still be picked up depending on your pickup pattern Balanced/unbalanced cabling Balanced: three lines (hot/neutral voltage and a ground line) XLR (mic cable) and TRS (tip-ring-sleeve, used for headphones) cables are balanced Typically used for low-impedance devices Unbalanced: no ground wire, hum is noticeable in these cables TS (like on guitar/keyboard cables) and RCA (used for stereo equipment, TVs, DVD players, game consoles, etc.) Preamps: Most places you go to have preamp consoles or have consoles with preamps built in. Mic Placement: Distant: 3 ft or more away from mic Close: 1 inch to 3 feet from the mic Accent: placement used to enhance the present content Ambient: used for things like reverb and crowd noise (like on live concert recordings) Stereo Miking Spaced pair: two mics are spaced out from a few feet to 30 feet apart X/Y: pair of mics whose grilles are placed together at a 90-135˚ angle M/S: mid/side, bidirectional mic facing sideways and a cardioid facing the sound source Decca tree: three omni mics, in which the left and right mics are spaced 3 feet apart, and the center mic is spaced out 1.5 feet out in front. 9/1/16 Old Time Radio Assignment - Listen to an old-time radio show and write a 1 page paper The differences between old time radio and modern stuff Ads pay for the radio show, Back then everyone gathered around the radio receiver, now everyone can watch on their own on any device Compare War of the Worlds to Alec Baldwin's live interview Miles Davis songs Name Live studio audience in New Jersey theatre Alec speaking Everything is clear as a bell Audience, then music, then Alec Arc in music, brought down when he starts talking Audience is really low Made the program for delivery as a podcast 2:3:1 ratio for radio shows: music, dialogue, audience Jack Benny program Cigarette ads!!! (It was the 50's) Jingles Levels: Crowd is really loud, right up at the mic Theatrically trained actors Tape hiss ESPN College Playoffs - TV One uses a handheld mic, sideline reporter uses a headset mic (like a lav mic) Woman holds the mic closer b/c the man knows he's louder, so he holds the mic farther away from his mouth Other woman in OK is headsetted. The desk people are all headsetted. What we need: What the teams are Where we are When to put commercials in Interviewees are boomed File formats: .m3u - podcast .mp3 - music .wav - professional quality audio (BWF) - text/metadata .aac - iTunes FLAC - lossless compression .m4r - ringtones APT-American Public Television Script format Audio/video specifications Back to the old time radio project Any old radio program (look at the Internet Archive for shows) Be clear on the name and the type of show Something about the production that caught my ear How what I heard might affect my work as a storyteller going forward
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