MMBIO 240 Week 1 Notes
MMBIO 240 Week 1 Notes MMBIO 240
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Walls on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MMBIO 240 at Brigham Young University taught by Nielsen, Brent in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Molecular Biology in Biology at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
MMBIO 240 Week 1 (08/29/16 – 09/02/16) Ch. 2.1 Mendelian Genetics -Genetics is the study of heredity and variation of inherited traits Key Terms A Geneis a specific portion of DNA that codes for a certain protein or RNA An Allele is a variation of a specific genethat codes for a specific trait The alleles thatanorganism possesses areknown as it’s Genotype The genotype influences the Phenotype(outward appearance) of anorganism Most genes contain two alleles thatmake a pair. Homozygousgenes containtwo matching alleles.Heterozygousgenes containtwo different alleles. A Dominant Allele is expressedinthe phenotype of a heterozygous organism. A Recessive Allele is not expressed (though present) in the phenotype of an organism -Gregor Mendel is famous for his heredity research on pea plants in the 1850’s 2 Mendelian LawsofHeredity 1. Lawof Segregation-Allelepairs separateduring gamete formation 2. Lawof Independent Assortment-Separategenes assortindependently of each other during gamete formation Exceptionsto Mendelian Laws IncompleteDominance-Heterozygous allelepairs produce a phenotype that appears to be a mix of the dominant and recessivetraits (Red +White=Pink) Codominance-Multipletraits canbe expressedat the same time (AB Blood) Linked Genes – Two genes that are relatively closed to each other on the same chromosome, and cannot separate from each other during gamete formation, and will typically be inherited together, however, they may be separated by recombination during meiosis CH.2.4 Molecular Genetics Howwas DNA proven to bethegenetic material? -Bacteriophages are composed of a protein coatand DNA. -Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey radioactively labelled the protein of one bacteriophage, and the DNA of another, and allowedthem to infect a culture of bacteria. -After centrifugal, Chase and Hershey found that radioactive material had entered the bacteria cell when the DNA was labelled, but not while protein was labelled. (Thus DNA is the genetic material) Key Terms • Linked genes are separate genes that are located relatively close to one another on the same chromosome, as recombination occurs between chromosomes, these genes are likelyto staytogether. • Unlinked genes are located further apart from each other on the chromosome, as recombination occurs, they arelikely to be separated from one another • Meiotic recombination iswhenonegene switches spots with another allele(ofthe same gene)on a sisterchromosome (i.e. a blue eye alleleswitches witha brown eye allele) • Transformation is theprocess ofchangethatoccurs when a cell intakes foreignDNA. The new DNA canalter the identity/properties of the host cell. Griffith’s tests on mice arean excellentdemonstration of Transformation -Injecting micewith a virulent strain of bacteria killed them -Injecting micewith heat-killed(denatured) virulent bacteria did not kill them -Injecting micewith a non-virulent strain of bacteria did not kill them -Injecting micewithheat-killed virulent bacteria and non-virulent bacteriakilled them Thenon-virulent bacteria took inDNA fromthe virulent strain(eventhough itwas dead)and was transformed, becoming lethal. • DNase –deoxyribonuclease, breaks down DNA • RNase –Ribonuclease,breaks down RNA • Protease-breaks down proteins Types of RNA • rRNA –Ribosomal RNA, subunit of a ribosome • mRNA –MessengarRNA, the RNA that carries the genetic code to the ribosome • tRNA –Transfer RNA, RNA which reads the mRNA’s code and carries Amino Acids • Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts.They incite specific chemical reactions. (i.e. mRNA Amino Acid Chains) • Mutationsare changes that occur to the DNA base sequence. These changes then alter the protein that is produced. • Genetic disease is disease that is caused by mutations to the genome, and that can be inherited from parents. • X-linked disease is diseasethat is linked to the X chromosome on the 23 chromosome pair (sexchromosome. XX =female, XY =male) • Autosomal Diseases are disease linked to any chromosome other than the sex chromosomes • The central dogma of molecular biology is that information flows from DNA RNA Protein • Transcription is the process of making RNA from DNA. This is done by an RNA polymerase which scans one strand of DNA and creates a single stranded RNA chain basedcomplementary to the DNA sequence • Translationistheprocess ofmaking proteins fromRNA.mRNA enter the ribosome and is matched to a tRNA, which adds a specific aminoacidto a polypeptide chain (protein)
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