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Bsc 103

by: Kierra Thompson
Kierra Thompson

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Weekly notes
Biology & Society
Emily Clark
Class Notes
Biology and society
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kierra Thompson on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Emily Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biology & Society in Science at University of Southern Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Week 2 Bsc 103 What constitutes life, and whats under the hood?  Biology – the study of life  How do we define life? o To be considered “living”, you need to DO certain things, i.e, have certain functional traits  Does it grow, i.e, increase in size  Can It reproduce  Does it maintain homeostasis  Maintain a relatively stable environment even if the external environment changes  Does it respond to and sense stimuli  Does it obtain and use energy? *All living things have 5 functional traits with some exceptions  All life on Earth is composed of the same chemical building blocks. Crash course basic chemistry  We are made of matter o Anything that takes up space and has mass  Matter is made of elements o Substances that cannot be chemically broken down.  Smallest unit of an element that still retains the property of that element is atoms o Atoms have distinct chemical properties. So, a carbon atom is different from a hydrogen atom, etc. etc.  An element’s identity consists of…. o Number of subatomic particles o Positively charged protons o Neutrally charged neutrons  Protons + neutrons = atom’s dense core or nucleus o Negatively charged and virtually weightless electrons  Carbon o Hth 6 protons and 6 neutrons o 4ndost common element on the planet o 2 most common element in human body o 1 of 6 that makes up the human body  Oxygen (65%)  Carbon (18.5%)  Hydrogen (9.5%)  Nitrogen (3.3%)  Phosphorus & sulfur (2%)  Carbon is versatile o It has four binding sites, where it can form covalent bonds  strong chemical bond resulting from shared electrons between 2 atoms o molecules  atoms linked by covalent bonds o Since carbon can bind up to four different atoms, it can form lots of different molecules What kind of molecules?  Organic molecules o Interconnected backbone and 1 C-H bond o All life on earth is made of organic molecules o Most are made by living things -> hallmark of life o Four type of organic molecules make up living things  Carbohydrates  Protein  Lipids  Nucleic acid *These are all macromolecules – consist of chemical subunits called monomers * monomer + monomer = polymer monomer polymer Carbohydrate Monosaccharide Polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) Protein Amino acid Some protein Nucleic acid Nucleotide Dna & rna  *Lipids are not true polymers o Not made of repeating monomers o Made of different hydrophobic molecules  Water fearing – wont dissolve in water  Phospholipids help to define cell boundaries o The cell is the basic structural unit of life o All cells are derived from other cells  cell theory o Water based interior that is separated from a chemically distinct water- based interior  Cell membranes o A phospholipid bilayer o Maintains the separation o A great barrier but must allow things to pass through which makes it semipermeable o It does this in a few ways…  Osmosis – diffusion of water through the cell membrane  Direction of water depends on solute concentration inside and outside the cell  Water always move towards the side with the higher concentration  Simple Diffusion- movement of small uncharged molecules across membrane from area of greater concentration to less  No energy required  Sometimes, molecules are too large to pass through the membrane or are hydrophilic. For these molecules, the cell needs transport proteins which are embedded in the cell membrane. They can help move molecules with or against the concentration gradient  Facilitated diffusion - molecules moved down the gradient, i.e. from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.  Examples: glucose, water  A.K.A. passive transport  no energy required.  Active transport – move molecules against concentration gradient  Requires chemical energy input 2 categories of cells  Eukaryotic cells o Larger cells that contain organelles ex: yeast, humans o Contains nucleus  Encloses the cell’s dna  Reactions for interpreting the genetic instructions take place here  Surrounded by nuclear envelope o Mitochondria  Cells power plants  Extract food from energy  Convert energy into a useful form o Endoplasmic reticulum  Network of membrane-covered “pipes”  Proteins and lipids synthesized here  Rough Er  studded with ribosomes that makes proteins  Smooth ER  where lipids are made o Golgi apparatus  Stacked membranous discs  Receives proteins from Er, process, package & send off *Nucleus, ER, and Golgi apparatus works together to produce and transport proteins o Lysomes  Full of digestive enzymes  Break down worn out cells parts or molecules  Recycle o Cytoskeleton  Network of protein fibers  Variety of function, including cell support, cell movement, and movement within the cell  Three types of proteins o Development of so many specialized compartments  Cannibal bacteria  Mitochondria and chloroplasts started as free-living bacteria.  They are about the same size as bacteria.  They have their own DNA.  They replicate similarly to bacteria  They have ribosomes.  Prokaryotic Cells o Commonly share cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, dna, and cell wall as the Eukaryotic cells o lack internal membrane-bound compartments (organelles)  Exp: bacteria *eukaryotic cells ended up being very different structurally from prokaryotic cells, i.e. bacterial cells. *These structural differences come in handy when targeting and killing bacterial cells and not host cells. *Penicillin: interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis.  Peptidoglycan is a polymer made of sugars and amino acids which makes bacterial cell walls rigid >> allows bacteria to survive in watery environments Penicillin works only on some bacteria  Bacteria cells are either o Gram positive cell wall with layer of peptidoglycan that retains the Gram stain o Gram negative  cell wall layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by lipid membrane that does not retain the Gram stain prevents penicillin from reaching the peptidoglycan underneath *Antibiotics doesn’t work on viruses when taken improperly Consequences You wipe out good bacteria in body Create an environment ripe for the evolution of antibiotic resistance Food, the Ultimate Building Block (nutrition, metabolism, and enzymes)  Consequences of not eating? o Malnutrition  a medical condition resulting from the lack of essential nutrients in the diet o Not always but often related to starvation  Most death due to malnutrition occur in Africa. Why o Poverty is endemic, with people relying on subsistence farming  trying to grow enough food to feed their families o Climate is not the only reason  Armed conflict a major factor  control food, control people  Deliberate starvation of people  war crime  Food contains nutrients o Nutrients:  Chemical building blocks our bodies need to live, grow, and repair  Includes water, ions, and organic molecules  Also provide us with energy needed to power essential life activities What kind of nutrients in food?  Macronutrients o Must ingest in large quantities to stay alive o Carbohydrates, protein & lipids o Proportion vary in different foods o Provide our cells with building blocks o Cannot be used directly o Must be broken down o Use subunits as energy o Process is called digestion Macronutrients: proteins  Broken down into amino acids  Depending on what your cells needs, these AA’s are used to assemble new proteins that have many different functions in the body Macronutrients: Carbohydrate  Broken down into simple sugars  Used to build cell-surface markers, energy-storage molecules Macronutrients: Fats  Broken down into fatty acids and glycerol  Used to build molecules that form cell membranes *Nucleic acids  your body needs smaller amounts of these  broken down into individual nucleotides Essential Nutrients • Food provides nutrients. • Sometimes, if we lack in one nutrient, our bodies can make do and synthesize it from what’s available. • This is not true for all nutrients. • Essential nutrients are those that MUST be obtained through diet Metabolism • The sum of all chemical reactions occurring in the body • Catabolic reactions break down larger structures into smaller ones (bond breaking) • Anabolic reactions build new structures from smaller subunits (bond building) • These reactions require the assistance of helper molecules called enzymes  proteins that speed up rate of chemical rxns *complex carb + enzyme = subsrate  molecule to which an enzyme binds and on which it acts  called the active site which changes shape Enzymes • They catalyze, or speed up, the rate of chemical reaction • How  Enzymes lower the activation energy, i.e. the energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed Micronutrients • Must ingest in small quantities o Includes vitamins and minerals  Minerals – inorganic  elements required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance.  Vitamins – organic  required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance *micronutrients can play structural and functional roles in the body What is the functional role? • Enzymes often can’t catalyze reactions on their own; they need help.  Help comes in the form of cofactors and coenzymes. o Mineral as cofactors  inorganic micronutrients required to activate an enzyme o Vitamins as coenzymes  small organic molecules required to activate enzymes


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