Bio 101, Week 1 Notes!!
Bio 101, Week 1 Notes!! Bio 101
Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vania Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Rachell Hill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Biological Concepts in Biology at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Bio. 101 Week 1 Notes Science- insights about nature supported by facts Theory – set of principles that explains a part of nature A theory is never proven Biological Literacy -Using scientific inquiry to think creatively about real-word issues -Discussion the thoughts with others -Use those thoughts into your decision-making Science works through the scientific method where an observation leads to a question about the natural world Hypothesis- unproven explanation Common Elements in most experiments Treatment- experimental condition applied to individuals Experimental group- individuals exposed to a particular treatment Control group-group of individuals similar to the experimental group, but not exposed to treatment Variables- changeable characteristics of you experiment Controlling variable -Key feature of a good experiment -Minimizing differences between control and experimental group other then treatment Assertions about the natural world can be challenged and revised Biology is the study of life Characteristics of Living Things Assimilate energy Respond to their environment Maintain homeostasis Reproduce Having inherited information base encoded in DNA allowing them to function Have one or more cells Evolved from other living thin Highly organized compared to inanimate objects Increasing complexity Atoms - >molecules - >organelles - > cells -> tissues -> organs - > organ system - > organisms - > populations - > communities - > ecosystems - > biosphere Living world is more complex an diverse then stars & atoms Chef unifying principle – evolution; the gradual modification of populations living things over time Evolution explains the forms and processes seen in living things Atom- fundamental unit of matter - Protons; in nucleus (+) - Neutrons; in nucleus (neutral) - Electrons; outside nucleus (-) Element- substance that can’t be broken down chemically -Determined by # of protons Atomic mass – neutron + protons - One element can have multiple neutrons Isotopes determine number of neutron Radioactive Atoms – have atomic nuclei that aren’t stable and break down spontaneously Use of isotopes -Carbon dating; finding out the age of organic matter There are 25 elements in the human body Big 4 Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Chemical bonding changes matter; caused by electrostatic attraction Chemical bonding as atoms “seek” their lowest energy state (when it fills its outer shells) Electronegativity- atoms power to attract Molecule- chemical linkage of defined number of atoms Bonds Covalent bond; share electrons Polar; not shared equally Non-polar; shared equally Ionic bond – takes or gives electron to other atoms Hydrogen bond – links a covalently bonded hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom Polarity- a diff in electrical charge at opposite ends Three-Dimensional shape – determines how much molecules have to bind with one another Water & life Solvent Low density when solid Large heat capacity Cohesion Solution- homogenous mixture Solute; compound dissolved in solution Solvent; compound doing the dissolving Water – powerful solvent, dissolve more polar compounds in greater amounts than other liquid Hydrophobic- compounds that don’t interact well with water Hydrophilic- compounds that interact well with water Acid- make hydrogen ions when put in aqueous solutions Base - accepts hydrogen ions pH scale Measure acidity; 0-14, most acidic to neutral pH 9 is 10x more basic then pH 8 Living thing work well in an almost neutral pH
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