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BIOM 360

by: Bronwyn

BIOM 360 BIOM 360-001

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Lecture notes from 8/31-9/2 on Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya structure. Eukarya structure is incomplete and will be completed in the week 2 notes.
General Microbiology
Seth Walk
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bronwyn on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOM 360-001 at Montana State University taught by Seth Walk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Montana State University.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
8/29:  ● Microbes are everywhere in everything and perform critical functions  ● Microbiology = knowledge of small life  ● Life  ○ “Characteristic of objects that have signaling and self­sustaining processes”  ○ Tree of life  ■ Bacteria, archaea, eukarya  ○ Viruses ­ not alive by our definition  8/31:  ● “Prokaryotes” gives idea that bacteria and archaea are similar which isn’t true  ● Shape and arrangement  ○ Cocci ­ spheres, in chains or filaments  ○ Bacilli ­ rods  ○ Vibrios ­ comma shaped  ○ Spirochetes ­ flexible helix  ○ Mycelium ­ filament network  ○ Pleomorphic ­ organisms w/ varying shape  ● Size  ○ Smallest = 20nm; average rod = 1.5x6µm; very large = 600x80µm  ● Bacterial structures and functions  ○ ***Table 3.1***  ○ Cell envelope  ■ Plasma membrane  ● Selectively permeable  ● Interacts w/ external environment  ● Membrane structure  ○ Bilayer  ■ Polar end (hydrophilic) and nonpolar tail  (hydrophobic)  ■ Membrane proteins ~ peripheral and integral  ● Nutrient uptake  ○ Macroelements ­ large amounts  ■ S,C,H,N,O,P and Ca,K,Mg,Fe  ○ Micronutrients ­ trace amounts at enzyme active sites  ■ Mn,Zn,Co,Mo,Ni,Cu  ○ Amino acids ­ protein synthesis  ○ Purine and pyrimidine ­ nucleic acid synthesis  ○ Vitamins ­ enzyme cofactors  ○ Microbes ~ uptake of dissolved particles  ■ Passive diffusion  ● High → low concentration  ● H​ O, O​ , CO​   2​ 2​ 2 ○ Microorganisms ~ use transport mechanisms  ■ Facilitated diffusion  ● Similar to passive, but uses protein  channels  ■ Active transport  ● Moves molecules against the gradient  ● Energy dependent  ○ Uses ATP  ● Secondary active  ○ Uses gradients to cotransport  ○ Symport = same direction  ○ Antiport = opposite direction  ■ Cell wall  ● Peptidoglycan = rigid structure outside plasma membrane  ○ Gram+ = thick peptidoglycan, small periplasmic space w/  few proteins, excretes exoenzymes  ○ Gram­ = little peptidoglycan, additional membrane, large  periplasmic space w/ many proteins, liptopolysaccharide in  outer membrane (stabilization, attachment protection)  ● Functions ~ maintains shape, protection from osmotic lysis and  toxins  9/2:  ■ Components outside cell wall  ● Glycocalyx  ○ Capsules ­ not easily removed, polysaccharides, protect  cell  ○ Slime layer ­ easily removed, motility  ○ S layer ­ structured protein layer  ■ Gram+ ­ on outer membrane  ■ Gram­ ­ associated w/ peptidoglycan  ○ Cytoplasm  ■ Cytoskeleton  ■ Membranes  ■ Inclusions  ● Microcompartments ­ CO2​ fixation, magnetosomes, buoyancy  ■ Ribosomes ­ protein/RNA structures for protein synthesis  ■ Plasmids  ● Extrachromosomal DNA ­ circular, closed  ● Independent of chromosome  ● Inherited  ● Contains nonessential genes  ○ External structures  ■ Protection, attachment, horizontal gene transfer, movement  ■ Fimbrae ­ numerous, attachment, motility  ■ Pili ­ conjugation  ■ Flagella ­ locomotor appendages, motility, attachment  ■ Motility ­ directed movement  ● Flagellar, spirochete, twitching, gliding  ● Move in response to stressors  ● Chemotaxis ­ movement due to chemical concentration  ● Archaea  ○ Similar mechanisms to eukarya, common genes same as bacteria  ○ Unique rRNA, lipids, metabolisms (methanogenesis)  ○ Commonly cocci/rods and branched/fat  ○ ***Table 4.1***  ○ Cell envelope  ■ S layer ­ onl component outside plasma membrane  ■ No peptidoglycan  ■  May not have cell wall  ■ Capsules and slime layers are rare  ■ May have external protein sheath or pseudomurein  ○ Membranes  ■ Lipids (mono/bilayer)  ● Branched hydrocarbon chain attached to glycerol by ether  ● Polar phos/sulfo/glycolipids  ○ Nutrient uptake  ■ Active transport, facilitated/passive diffusion  ○ Cytoplasm  ■ May have inclusion bodies  ■ Nucleoid region  ■ Ribosomes  ● protein/RNA structures that create protein  ● More similar protein to eukaryotes  ● Eukarya   ○ Microorganisms  ■ protists/fungi, pathogens, extremophiles  ○ ***Table 5.1***  ○ Common features  ■ Membrane bound nuclei and organelles  ■ Intracytoplasmic membrane serves as transport  ■ More complex and larger than bacteria/archaea  ○ Cell envelope  ■ Plasma membrane ­ lipid bilayer w/ ester linkages  ■ Lipid ­ phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids, cholesterol 


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