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CJ 250 Notes

by: anyairo2

CJ 250 Notes CJ 250


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About this Document

Very important notes
Judicial Process
Daniel N. Clay
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by anyairo2 on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 250 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel N. Clay in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Arrest ∙    Different Measures of Crime  UCR­ Uniform Crime Report  NIBRS­  Statistical Trends, crimes reported that have resulted in an arrest  Murder: 64.8%  Rape: 40.3%  Robbery: 28.2%     Arrest begins the formal adjudication process  Courts may be involved in the investigation  Arrest is the "prelude" to adjudication  Arrest may be formal or informal ∙       Custody versus Citations Step 1: The Initial Appearance  ∙   Aka the Gerstein hearing is required in non­indictment jurisdictions within 48 hours of  warrantless arrest  Usually "complaint" or "information jurisdictions  Purpose is to inform defendant of charges  Like an orientation for the adjudication process  For the benefit of the defendant  48 hours do NOT include weekends ∙        Hearing will include:  Informal notice of charges  Notice of rights  ∙       Right to counsel attaches  Bail determination (subject to review)  Neutral determination of probable cause (sometimes)  ∙       Often a separate, later hearing  ∙       Not required in Grand Jury jurisdictions  Entrance of a plea (presumably guilty)  ∙       Unless a felony in limited jurisdiction courts Bail  Determination occurs at initial appearance or a separate hearing   8th amendment does not guarantee right to bail, only notes that bail cannot be  "excessive"  Some state constitutions guarantee bail ­Ex. Massachusetts  Federal presumption of bail unless exception applies  ∙       Flight risk  ∙       Danger to community  ∙       Situational determinations  ∙       Must be lowest necessary  Cash versus surety jurisdictions  Some states ban bail bondsmen  Sometimes allow people out on own recognizance  ∙       Effects of bail on poor?  Usually can't post bail  If can post bail, could significantly affect livelihood  ∙       Could be rent money, etc.  ∙       Maybe interlocutorily appealed all the way to SCOTUS  Trial comes to a halt until settled  SCOTUS gets no discretion in bail cases/hearings  ∙       Can't post bail, makes one more likely to be convicted due to being defended at the  leisure of a public defender Step 2: The Preliminary Hearing ∙        Formal determination of Probable Cause (51%)  Mini­trial  Defendant is present and may cross­examine witnesses   But only prosecution can call witnesses  Defendant is not generally permitted to present evidence  Crime probably occurred and defendant is probably responsible  Not required in Grand Jury jurisdictions  Theoretically, a citizen check n the judicial process  In reality, it’s the prosecutors playground  "would indict a ham sandwich"  Grand jury indicts 99.9% of people prosecutor presents to them  Not required for misdemeanors  Not required when waived  Generally, will never be waived absent cause Step 3: The Arraignment  Similar to initial appearance  Occurs after formal determination of probable cause  Formal notice of charges  Formal notice of rights again  Formal entry of plea  Occurs in a court of general jurisdiction thus felony defendants may enter a plea  Signals "seriousness" to defendant  Forces hand in plea bargaining


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