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ANS 411: Week 1

by: Carlin Truell

ANS 411: Week 1 ANS 411

Carlin Truell
GPA 2.75
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About this Document

Lecture notes from week one and answers to the vaccination and parasite study questions.
Management and Growing of Performance Horses
Dr. Paul Siciliano
Class Notes
Equine Science, equine, Horse, Animal Science, Science




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carlin Truell on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 411 at North Carolina State University taught by Dr. Paul Siciliano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Management and Growing of Performance Horses in Animal Science at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
ANS 411 – Growing and Performance Horse Management Horse Industry Overview and Historical Trends Learning outcomes: 1. Describe the horse industry in terms of various uses/purposes for horses and how this influences both scientific principles and practices associated with their management. 2. Describe historical population and economic trends and factors that drive these  trends. 3. Predict future trends based on past trends and factors that drive these trends. 4. Identify reasons for studying about horses. 5. Identify career opportunities in the horse industry. What is the horse industry? ● A collection of all of the services and people that work with horses ● The same principles across the board > different practices ● Horses are considered to be a commodity and companion animals ● The horse business is about the business of recreation Horse population trends ● Horses decreased with the increase of automobiles ● Tractors began to replace horses ● Horses began to be viewed as recreation and their numbers increased ● Categorization of horses by use ­ % ○ Racing: 19% ○ Show: 29.5% ○ Recreation: 42.4% ○ Other: 9.2% ● 2010 Canadian Horse Industry ○ Industry study ■ Pleasure riding ~23% of total ■ Similar to “sport competition” and “breeding” ■ Similar for 2003 and 2010 ● American Horse Publication Equine Industry Survey ○ 2009/10 and 2012 ■ Surveyed ~11000 online ● ~73% pleasure/trail rider Economic trends ● 2005 American Horse Council ○ National economic impact of the US horse industry ■ $39 billion direct economic effect ■ $1.9 billion in taxes ○ Economic impact in terms of billions of dollars ■ Racing: $27 billion ■ Showing: $28 billion ■ Recreation: $31 billion ■ Other: $14 billion ○ Feed and fuel costs are the highest contributing factors ● Canadian horse industry ○ Horse industry economic contribution ■ $15.8 billion  ■ $19.7 billion ○ Foal production decreased 50% from 2003 to 2010 ○ Cost to keep a horse ­ increased 70% between 2003 to 2010 ○ 49% decrease in sales prices (2008/2009 vs 2010) Why study about horses? ● It is a business ● Horses need care daily Career opportunities ● Boarding ● Cooperative extension ● Facility design ● Tryon International Equestrian Center ○ Tryon, NC 2014 ○ ~ $100 million investment ANS 411 – Vaccination and Parasite Prevention Guideline Questions Go to the AAEP website(link on Moodle) – Is there a standard vaccination protocol for all horses? • No there is no standard vaccination protocol – What are the “Core” vaccines? • Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis  • Rabies • Tetanus • West Nile Virus – What is the difference between a killed and modified­live  vaccine? • Live Vaccines contain agents capable of replicating within  the horse yet have attenuated pathogenicity. Live vaccines stimulate a broad range of immune responses and generally long lasting duration of immunity with the  administration of fewer doses. Live vaccines have the potential to induce  cytotoxic T­lymphocytes (CTL), or mucosal immunity if administered at mucosal  sites, both of which can be very advantageous. • Modified Live Vaccines (MLV) are typically derived from the naturally occurring pathogen, and are produced by: 1) attenuation in cell  culture, 2) use of variants from other species, and 3) development of temperature­ sensitive mutants. • Inactivated/Killed Vaccines lack pathogenicity and can  neither replicate nor spread between hosts. These vaccines typically require  multiple doses in the primary vaccinal series and regular boosters. Efficacy of  inactivated/killed vaccines is often reliant on the use of potent adjuvants. – What is a recombinant vaccine? • Live Attenuated Vector Vaccines are engineered by  incorporation of a pathogen’s antigenic peptides into a harmless carrier virus or  bacteria. • Chimeric Vaccines are produced by substituting genes  from the target pathogen for similar genes in a safe, but closely related organism.  • DNA Vaccines consist of a DNA plasmid encoding a viral  gene that can be expressed inside cells of the animal to be immunized. – What other strategies besides vaccination can be used to  control infectious disease? • Reducing the exposure to infectious agents in the horse's'  environment • Minimizing factors that decrease resistance or increase  susceptibility to disease – Be able to briefly describe the organism that causes each  disease both core and risk­based diseases (i.e., virus, bacteria). • Core: • Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis ­ virus • Rabies ­ virus • Tetanus ­ bacteria • West Nile Virus ­ virus • Risk­Based: • Anthrax ­ bacteria • Botulism ­ bacteria • Equine Herpesvirus ­ virus • Equine Influenza ­ virus • Equine Viral Arteritis ­virus • Leptospirosis ­ bacteria • Potomac Horse Fever ­ bacteria • Rotaviral Diarrhea ­ virus • Snake Bite ­ poison • Strangles ­ bacteria – What are the clinical signs and consequences of both core and  risk­based diseases? • Core vaccines are those that protect from diseases that are  endemic to a region, those with potential public health significance, required by  law, virulent/highly infectious, and/or those posing a risk of severe disease. • Risk­based vaccines are vaccinations included in a  vaccination program after the performance of a risk­benefit analysis. The use of  risk­based vaccinations may vary regionally, from population to population within an area, or between individual horses within a given population. Disease risk may  not be readily identified by laypersons; it is important to consult a veterinarian  when developing a vaccination program st – Note differences between types of vaccines regarding age when  the 1  dose is given (compare botulism and influenza vs all others).  Why the  difference? • Foal • %20Chart_8.12.16.pdf • Adult • %20Vaccination%20Chart_8.12.16.pdf – What adverse reactions can occur with vaccination? • Severe reactions at sites of injection can be particularly  troublesome, requiring prolonged treatment and convalescence. Systemic adverse  reactions (such as urticaria, purpura hemorrhagica colic or anaphylaxis) can also  occur. Other systemic adverse reactions have been anecdotally reported. – Comment on proper storage and handling of vaccines. • Per manufacturer's’ instructions, aseptic technique is to be  followed when handling and administering vaccines. Vaccine administration sites  (skin / haircoat, mucosa) are to be clean. Each animal should be vaccinated with  separate new needles for each vaccine product to avoid cross contamination of  products and possible adverse reactions and to reduce the possibility of spreading  blood­borne pathogens • Storage and handling instructions may be product specific.  It is important to read and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for each  product regarding: storage temperature, exposure to light during storage, and  shaking of the product to assure uniform vaccine suspension. • Maintaining vaccines at the appropriate temperature from  transport from manufacturer/supplier to patient administration is a very important  aspect of proper immunization delivery programs. Lack of adherence to proper  temperature maintenance can result in lack of efficacy, undue vaccine failures,  and an increased rate of adverse reactions post vaccination. Answer the following using the UC Davis publication and the AAEP Parasite Control  Guidelines posted on Moodle. – What are the chemical compound classes of dewormers? • Fenbendazole/Oxibendazole • Pyrantel • Ivermectin/Moxidectin – Why is an understanding of dewormer chemical compounds  essential in parasite prevention? • Prevent parasite resistance • Know what chemical compounds treat which parasites – What dewormer chemical compounds are effective against  which types of parasites?  (hint – there’s a nice table in the article) – Why is parasite control so important in young horses? • To prevent illness or spreading of parasites – Why are ascrids a major concern in young but not older  horses? • Causes poor growth, rough hair coats, and chronic  respiratory problems in young horses – What is the basic life cycle of intestinal parasites? – What are the major parasites affecting horses? • Large/Small strongyles • Ascarids • Stomach worms • Tapeworms • Pinworms • Bots – Why are dewormers for bots given in the fall after a frost? • Bots lay their eggs in the fall – Why are small stronglyes a challenge to deworm against and  what compounds are most effective? • They become encysted and become resistant to most  dewormers • Moxidectin and Fenbendazole – What is targeted or selective deworming?  Why is it a  preferred method? • Not all horses need to be dewormed and should only be  treated when infected • This helps reduce resistance – What management practices aside from deworming are helpful in preventing intestinal parasite infestation? • Compost manure • Herbal dewormers • Remove manure – When should foals first be dewormed? • 2­3 months of age


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