New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

English 219 Week 1 Notes

by: Brittany Sholl

English 219 Week 1 Notes English 219

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Linguistics > English 219 > English 219 Week 1 Notes
Brittany Sholl
GPA 3.0
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Introduction to Linguistics

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Introduction to Linguistics notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes consist of material learned in the first week of class! Possible information for the upcoming quizzes. :)
Introduction to Linguistics
Class Notes
Linguistics, english, english219, intro




Popular in Introduction to Linguistics

Popular in Linguistics

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Sholl on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to English 219 at Iowa State University taught by Sonsaat in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Linguistics in Linguistics at Iowa State University.

Similar to English 219 at ISU

Popular in Linguistics


Reviews for English 219 Week 1 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/05/16
What is Linguistics? August 25th, 2016 1:05 p.m. What is linguistics?  The science of language  Structure, meaning, context o Structure: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax o Meaning: Semantics, Lexical Semantics, Phrasal Semantics o Context: Pragmatics Phonetics: How language sounds are produced and perceived o EX: through, threw, clue, shoe Phonology: Patterns of sounds, different patterns of sounds in different languages o EX: what sounds go together, how sounds can change Morphology: Words & formation of words o EX: cat-calling, bi-cycle, (how new words can be created and removed from a language) Syntax: Sentence structure and formation o EX: How a sentence can be formed with adjectives, nouns, verbs.. Semantics: The study of the meaning of words o EX: lexical semantics, pragmatics Discourse: Response patterns and negotiation of meaning o EX: spoken or written language in a social context o EX: "How is your day?" "Thanks." Language Acquisition: First & Second languages o EX: Humans require capacity to comprehend more than one language Language Variation and Dialects: variation of the same language o EX: Accent, spelling What is the Human Language? {Any set or symbols used in a more or less uniform fashion by a number of people who are thus enabled to communicate intelligibly with one another} Arbitrary & Non Arbitrary  Signs: language is a system of arbitrary signs  Arbitrary signs: no inherent connection between the sign and what it indicates (stop light) we created o EX: Stop Light  Nonarbritrary signs: there is an inherent connection between the sign and what it signs cannot change o EX: smoke from a fire  Representational (iconic) Signs: basically arbitrary but a little bit iconic; sign may suggest its meaning o EX: a thumbs up sign {If we had no arbitrary signs language would be more limited, there would be no different words for the same thing, (ex: dinner; supper) word forms would not change and word meanings would not change.} **Language has an infinite number of sentences but a limited number of words. o We don’t really memorize sentences; only words to create or improve our sentences o We usually always use new sentences; barely reuse sentences o Once we learn a language we are able to separate sentences from non-sentences Noam Chomsky  Language is NOT a set of learned responses to stimuli. Linguistic Competence: what we know/understand about a language; have in our brain (unconscious knowledge about sounds, words, structures, rules) Performance: how we use this linguistic knowledge; what we do (we create sentences, use new words, stammer, pause) What is Grammar? Grammar: Knowledge speakers have about the units and rules of their language Components of Grammar: {Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics} Descriptive Grammar: describing linguistic rules when speaking a language Prescriptive Grammar: attempts to prescribe what rules of language people should and shouldn't use (some grammars are better than others) o EX: Whoever decided that "two negatives make a positive" and people shouldn't use double negatives; although many other languages use double negatives Teaching Grammars: Teach the sound of a new language, states the rules of a language to be able to learn and comprehend another language. o EX: Learning Spanish in high school (teaching sound, structure, word order, new words) Universal Grammars: General grammar vs. special grammar, universal laws of language, humans born with the ability to learn and create language {Normal children acquire a language quickly and easily and without instruction and can learn world's languages the same way with the same stages as learning their own language.} {If children are born with universal language, they can acquire the language quickly and easily because they already know the universal properties and only need to learn certain rules of the language.} Sign Language: visual gesture, own grammar rules, own lexicon of signs, fully developed languages Hockett's Design Features of Human Language Discreteness: messages in the system are made up of smaller, repeatable parts and can be broken down into units Creativity: language users can create and understand utterances never heard before Displacement: language user can talk about things that are not present- the message can refer to things in remote time o EX: allows discussion for past and future events and abstract ideas Purist Approach: Saving the Language What is NOT Human Language?  Bird calls, bird songs (no internal structure), honeybees dances {non-human primates can string two signs together and show flashes of creativity, though their language isn't as near human linguistics} {The changing of a language is a natural process, and occurs throughout time} Language & Thought Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: the theory that the structure of a language influences how its speakers perceive the world around them Linguistic Determinism: the strongest form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis which claims that the language we speak determines how we perceive the world Linguistic relativism: a weaker form of the hypothesis which claims that different languages encode different categories which can influence a speaker’s perceptions of the world {Some psychologists have suggested that speakers of gender-marking languages think about objects as being gendered} EX: Masculine, Feminine words in Spanish


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.