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Developmental Psychology, Chapter One

by: M.G

Developmental Psychology, Chapter One PSYC 3310

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Psychology > PSYC 3310 > Developmental Psychology Chapter One
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These notes cover material discussed in lecture from week one and may be crucial for tests and quizzes
Developmental Psychology
Dr. M. Guarneri-White
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3310 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. M. Guarneri-White in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at University of Texas at Arlington.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
Lecture Two/Three  Chapter One  8/30/2016­9/01/2016    Lecture Two/Three  Lecture Notes  Glossary      Lecture Notes:  “Quiz 1”  ● Major  ● Classification  ● Age  ● “How excited are you about seeing a video of a live birth?”  ○ So excited I can’t stand it  ○ Meh I’ve seen worse  ○ Not very  ○ I would like to drop the class now please  ● The first official quiz will be on ​Tuesday, September 6th  ○ Applications, not definitions    Development  ● A pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the  lifespan  ● Includes death and dying  ● Tends to occur in stages like infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood  ● Average life expectancy has risen due to modern technology and medicine  ○ Germ theory, pasteurization, clean water  ● Historically, children were thought to be ‘little adults’ and were sent out to do adult work  ○ Worked in factories, etc.  ● Up until the early 20th century, it was thought that infants had no sense of pain  ● Causation  ○ Development is caused by maturation  ■ Biological, social, and emotional  ■ We learn how to process information better  ○ Learning  ■ A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience or  practice  ● Experience produces changes in behavior  ○ A child touches a hot stove and burns themselves. As a  result, the child has learned not to touch a hot stove.   ● Development is constantly changing  ● Development is multidisciplinary  ○ Health  ○ Biology  ○ Psychology  ○ Sociology   ● Development is contextual  ○ Development occurs within a context. All experiences affect a person’s  development.  The Lifespan  ● There are many things that influence development throughout the lifespan  ○ Age­related influences that are shared by a particular age group  ■ High­school graduation usually occurs at age 18  ○ History­related influences that are shared by a particular generation  ■ Like the civil rights era, world war 2, 9/11.   ○ Non­normative life events  ■ Specific to an individual  ● Death of a parent or sibling  ● Loss of a limb    Current concerns  ● Health  ○ Obamacare, uninsured people  ● Parenting/education  ○ Teaching children how to handle displeasure, how to learn empathy, etc  ● Sociocultural contexts and diversity  ○ Culture  ○ Ethnicity  ○ SES  ■ Poverty, wealth indicators  ○ Gender  ■ Male vs. female development  ● Biases influencing how each gender is treated as they age    Processes  ● Biological  ● Cognitive  ● Socioemotional  ● Each process can affect the others    Periods of development  ● Prenatal  ● Infancy  ● ….  ● Emerging adulthood  ○ Suggested to be from 18­25, where these adults are free from typical adult  responsibilities such as childrearing, mortgages, and marriage.  Age  ● Is measured in many ways  ○ Chronological  ■ How old you ​are  ○ Biological  ■ How old you are in terms of health  ○ Psychological age  ■ How old you are in terms of your adaptive ability  ○ Social age  ■ How old you are in terms of how you are in relation to society’s  expectations  ●  50yo man living in his mom’s basement ­ not typical to that of a  normal 50yo in American society  ■ Your social age can change depending on your experiences  Childhood Development views  ● Original sin  ○ Children are born tainted towards evil  ● Tabula rasa  ○ Children are born as ‘blank slates’ and can become good or bad through  experience  ■ Locke  ● Innate goodness  ○ Children are born inherently good  ■ Rousseau    Development Theories  ● Nature vs. Nurture  ○ Psychology believes that it’s a mixture of both. Nature sets up the stage, while  nurture directs the play.   ○ Certain genes relay a higher chance to be a particular way given specific  experiences  ● Stability vs. Change  ○ Most psychologists believed that there is capacity to change, whereas others  believe that people are forever shaped by early experiences  ● Continuity vs discontinuity  ○ Change occurs gradually and cumulative  ● Activity vs. Passivity  ○ Theories of activity believe children are active in their own development  ○ Theories of passivity believe children can be changed at the will of those who  raise them  ○ Most psychologists believe it’s a combination of both, in a form of reciprocal  determinism that says development occurs via a constant reciprocal interaction  between children and their environment  ● Psychoanalytic  ○ Freud describes development as an unconscious process heavily influenced by  emotions  ■ Early experiences with parents heavily shape one’s development  ○ Freud’s Psychosexual Development  ■ Adult personality is shaped by how we resolve conflicts between pleasure  at each stage and the demands of reality  ○ Psychosocial  ■ Erickson believed that social motivations are a central influence in  development  ● Early and later experiences in life are both important in  development  ● Conflict must be resolved before one can move to the next stage  ● Cognitive  ○ Emphasizes conscious thought   ○ Piaget’s Theory  ■ Piaget theorized that children know what they’re doing when it comes to  their development, actively constructing their understanding of the world  ○ Vygotsky’s Theory  ■ Vygotsky theorized that children learn from higher­skilled peers and  adults  ■ Social interaction and culture is important  ○ Information­processing theory  ■ In this theory, individuals manipulate, monitor, and strategize information  in order to learn  ● Behavioral and Social Cognitive  ○ Development is observable behavior learned through experience with the  environment  ■ Development is ongoing  ○ Skinner’s Operant conditioning  ■ Consequences produce changes in the probability of a certain behavior  ■ Rewards and punishment can help shape behavior  ○ Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory  ■ Development is due to observational learning, where he showed that  toddlers can learn aggression  ● Inflated a clown figure and had children watch adults beat up the  clown, while he had another group interact positively with the  clown  ○ The group that watched the adults beating up the clown  also beat up the clown  ● Ethology  ○ Behavior is strongly tied to biology and influenced by evolution  ■ Characterized by critical or sensitive periods  ● Critical periods are where if something isn’t learned in a set time  frame, you can’t learn it  ● Sensitive periods are where if something isn’t learned in a set time  frame, you can still learn it, but it will be much harder to learn  ○ Konrad Lorenz  ■ Zoologist who studied behavior of greylag geese  ● Found that geese imprinted on the first moving object they saw  ○ Imprinting: Rapid learning involving attachment to the first  moving object  ○ John Bowlby  ■ Applied ethological theory to human development  ● Attachment is important over the first year of life  ○ Sensitive period, where it’s optimal to happen the first year  but it can still happen later in life  ■ Adoption   ○ A secure attachment leads to optimal development in  childhood and adulthood  ● Eclectic  ○ States that no single theory explains the complexity of lifespan development  ■ Each theory, however, has contributed to understanding some of the  factors that shape development  ■ In this approach, theoretical perspectives are compared to and contrasted  to each other regarding their views of development    Research in Development  ● All research uses the scientific method  ○ Theory  ■ An interrelated set of ideas that helps explain data and makes predictions  about that data  ● Data collection  ○ Data is collected by  ■ Observation  ● In nature, where people can be undisturbed  ● In the lab, where the environment can be controlled  ■ Survey and Interviews  ● Non­invasive  ● Subject to social desirability  ■ Standardized tests  ● Useful to measure groups against other groups of people  ○ SAT, ACT, etc  ■ Case studies  ● A unique study that deals with one specific case that reveals the  truth about that specific group  ■ Physiological measures  ● Uses measures such as blood pressure   ● Objective data rather than subjective data  ● Research  ○ Descriptive research  ■ Descriptive research aims to observe and record behavior, rather than  interpret the behavior  ○ Correlational research  ■ Correlational research aims to describe the strength of the relationship  between two or more events or characteristics  ​ ​ ● Normative age­graded influences​: Influences that are similar for individuals in a  particular age group  ● Normative history­graded influences:​ Influences that are common to people of a  particular generation because of historical circumstances  ● Nonnormative life events:​ Events that are unusual occurrences that have a major impact  on an individual’s life  ● Culture:​ The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of  people that are passed on from generation to generation  ● Cross­cultural studies​: Studies that compare aspects of two or more cultures  ● Ethnicity:​ A characteristic rooted in cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and  language  ● Socioeconomic status (SES):​ A person’s position within society based on occupational,  educational, and economic characteristics  ● Gender: ​The characteristics of people as males and females  ● Social policy:​ A government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its  citizens  ● Biological processes​: Processes that produce changes in an individual’s physical  characteristics  ● Cognitive processes:​ Processes that involve changes in the individual’s thought process,  intelligence, and language  ● Socioemotional processes:​ Processes that involve changes in the individual’s  relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality  ● Developmental cognitive neuroscience:​ A science that explores links between  development, cognitive processes, and the brain  ● Developmental social neuroscience:​ A science that examines connections between  socioemotional processes, development, and the brain  ● Developmental period:​ A time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain  features  ● Prenatal period: ​The time from conception to birth  ● Infancy:​ The developmental period from birth to approximately 18­24 months of age  ● Early childhood:​ The developmental period from the end of infancy (18­24 months) to  approximately 5­6 years of age  ● Middle and late childhood:​ The developmental period from about 6­11 years age  ● Adolescence: ​The developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood,  beginning at 10­12 and ending around 18­21 years of age  ● Emerging adulthood:​ The time of transition into adulthood from 18­25 years of age   


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