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Quiz 2 Review Notes

by: Adam Reinstein

Quiz 2 Review Notes MCB 3020

Adam Reinstein
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About this Document

These are notes for Quiz 2 and consist of the questions from the quiz review sent out by the professor and answers provided from the powerpoints and textbook
General Microbiology
Nwadiuto Esiobu
Class Notes
Microbiology, Biology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adam Reinstein on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCB 3020 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Nwadiuto Esiobu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Florida Atlantic University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
General Microbiology MCB 3020; FAU Boca Raton Quiz 2 Review 1. Distinguish between the transmission and scanning electron microscope? Transmission electron microscopes transmit electrons at a specimen and record the way in which they scatter to produce an image whereas scanning electron microscopes use electrons excited from the surface of a specimen to create detailed image 2. Know the functions of the cytoplasmic membrane The cytoplasmic membrane has many key functions which include:  Encompasses the cytoplasm  Selectively permeable barrier  Seat of ATP synthesis  Interacts with external environment  receptors for detection of and response to chemicals in surroundings  transport systems  metabolic processes 3. Review the periplasmic space – location and function? The periplasmic space is an area of hydrolytic enzymes and binding proteins that functions as an area for nutrient uptake and processing. It is typically found in gram-negative bacteria and is smaller or absent in gram- positive bacteria. 4. What effect will hypotonic, hypertonic or isotonic solutions have on a bacterium with and without peptidoglycan? Bacterium without peptidoglycan would experience the typical reaction a cell would have when placed in any of the three environments. A bacterium with peptidoglycanis protected from osmotic lysis, or the rupturing of a cell when its placed in a hypotonic solution. 5. What are the various mechanisms used by bacteria to transport nutrients and molecules across the membrane? Active transport, passive diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion and endocytosis/Inclusions 6. Describe the composition of bacterial cell wall. The bacterial cell wall contains Peptidoglycan which is a mesh-like polymer of identical subunits. Archaeal Cell’s do NOT have Peptidoglycan but may have an S layer and protein sheath. Fluid-mosaic model. 7. Note the characteristics of prokaryotic cells No nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic DNA is found in the nucleoid 8. What is the composition of the bacterial cell envelop? The bacterial cell envelop consists of  Plasma membrane  Cell wall  Layers outside the cell wall 9. Differences between gram positive and negative bacteria? 10. What is lysozyme? What is its target in the bacterial cell wall Lysozymes are enzymes that damages bacterial cell walls by catalyzing hydrolysis of linkages in peptidoglycan and chitodextrins. 11.Contrast the membrane lipids of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes and their possible implications in treatment of disease Membrane lipids usually consists of fatty acids attached to glycerol by ester linkages such as steroids like cholesterol in eukaryotes or hopanoids in bacteria. Archaea differ from Bacteria and Eukarya in that they have branched chain hydrocarbons attached to glycerol by ether linkages 12.Review the cytoplasmic content of bacteria and their roles In bacteria there are Inclusions, which are used for multiple purposes like storage, buoyancy and CO fi2ation. There are Ribosomes which synthesize proteins and The Nucleoid which contains the bacteria’s genetic structure. There are also Plasmids which are Extra-chromosomal DNA which replicates on its own and are responsible for antibiotic resistant genes 13.What are penicillin binding proteins and transpeptidases? Bacterial enzyme that cross-links the peptidoglycan chains to form rigid cell walls. 14.Know the constituents of the cell wall of archaea  S-layer  Protein sheath  pseudomurein (peptidoglycan-like polymer) 15.Weight the relationship between Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya based from rRNA similarities or differences. Archaea are more closer related to Eukarya than Bacteria. 16.What type of ribosomes are found in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya?  bacterial and archaea ribosome = 70S  Eukarya = 80s  archaea have additional 5.8S (also seen in eukaryotic large subunit)  archaea more similar to eukarya than to bacteria 17.Specific functions of each component of the bacterial cell envelop. There are 2 types of bacterial cell envelops, gram-negative and gram- positive. Gram-positive:  Thick Cell walls of peptidoglycan- maintin structure and protect from lysis  Teichoic acids- help maintain cell envelope protect from environmental substances may bind to host cells Gram-negative:  Thin layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane of lipids, lipoproteins, and lipopolysaccharide- contributes to negative charge on cell surface, helps stabilize outer membrane structure and may contribute to attachment to surfaces and biofilm formation  The periplasmic space- nutrient uptake and processing External Layers of the cell envelope (all of which promote adhesion to surfaces):  Capsules- resistant to phagocytosis  slime layers- aid in motility  S layers- Protect from ion and pH fluctuations, osmotic stress, enzymes, and predation, Maintains shape and rigidity  Protects from host defenses 18.Isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions and bacterial growth Most microbes prefer isotonic solutions, gram-positive can thrive in hypotonic solutions thanks to thick peptidoglycan cell wall. Hypertonic environments usually cause plasmolysis 19.Functions of bacterial endospores Bacterial endospores allow the survival of bacteria's cell lines through harsh conditions that would kill a normal member of the species. 20.What are the constituents of the outer membrane of cells? The outer membrane usually consists of LPS which is composed of: lipid A , core polysaccharide, and O side chain (O antigen)


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