BIOL 2458 Lecture Two Notes
BIOL 2458 Lecture Two Notes BIOL 2458
Popular in Anatomy and Physiology II
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2458 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Timothy Henry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
Reviews for BIOL 2458 Lecture Two Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/06/16
Lecture Two The Endocrine System and the Cardiovascular System: Blood 08/30/2016 Lecture Two Overview: The Endocrine System (continued) The Cardiovascular System Glossary Abbreviations List Overview: ● Dr. Henry started lecture on slide #55 of Chapter 18, finishing the powerpoint on the endocrine system ● Dr. Henry finished lecture on slide #12 of Chapter 19, starting the powerpoint for the cardiovascular system ● ECHO l ink: https://echo360.org/lesson/G_4b0e880819dc44948a0d3c8df054eb38_20160830T09: 30:00.000_20160830T10:50:00.000/classroom#sortDirection=desc Martini Study Guide links: ● Chapter 18 ○ Suggested course of study: ■ Fillintheblank ■ True/False ■ All multiple choice sections ■ Chapter test ● Chapter 19 ○ Suggested study: ■ Matching Tip: Always read one chapter ahead. Dr. Henry often will finish one chapter and jump straight into the next one when finished. Tip: When going through multiple choice, don’t be afraid to look in your book for an answer. If you need to use your book to answer the question, make a note to look back at that material before the test. The Endocrine System (continued) Overview notes ● A fat soluble hormone is dangerous because it can go straight through the cell membrane and through to the nuclear envelope ○ While T and T are not technically fats, they act like fats because they are based 3 4 on nonpolar amino acids ○ Fat soluble hormones are attached to carrier proteins to ensure they go to the correct cells Lecture two notes ● The parathyroid glands are glands embedded in the lobes of the thyroid gland. They are usually in two pairs shaped like buttons ○ Buttons control the levels of Ca , magnesium, and phosphate in the blood ○ Parathormone (PTH), which is produced by the parathyroid glands, is the hormone used to control these levels. ■ PTH activates osteoclasts, which destroy bone and in turn raises calcium levels in the blood ● The inverse of PTH is calcitonin, which activate osteoblasts to build bone and lower calcium levels in the blood. However, calcitonin is secreted by the thyroid ■ PTH affects the kidneys to produce calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D ● Calcitriol increases the rate of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate absorption from the GI tract into the blood ● The adrenal glands are organs separated into two distinct regions ○ Adrenal cortex ■ The adrenal cortex comprises 8090% of each adrenal gland and consists of three different zones that each secrete different hormones ● Zona glomerulosa ○ Secretes mineralocorticoids ■ Mineralocorticoids affect mineral homeostasis ■ Main mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which retains Na (sodium) for K (potassium) ● Zona fasciculata ○ Secretes glucocorticoids ■ Glucocorticoids affect glucose homeostasis ■ Primarily secretes cortisol, a hormone that reacts to stress ■ Glucocorticoids have the following effects: ● Protein breakdown in muscle fibers to increase amino acids in the bloodstream ○ Amino acids can be then used for ATP or new protein synthesis ● Glucose formation from some amino acids or lactic acid ○ This conversion is called gluconeogenesis, where a substance other than glycogen or another monosaccharide is converted into glucose ● Lipolysis, where triglycerides break down and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream ● Stress resistance by glucose production for ATP ○ ATP is helpful to combat multiple stressors ● Antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting inflammatory white blood cells ● Lowering of immune responses ○ This is helpful in cases of transplantation, especially when there is a high chance of that transplant being rejected by the recipient’s body ● Zona reticularis ○ Secretes androgens, which are sex hormones ■ Has to do with female libido ■ Stimulates growth of armpit and facial hair in both males and females ○ Adrenal medulla ■ An example of the nervous and endocrine systems interacting together ■ Synthesizes epinephrine and norepinephrine ● Roughly 80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine ● Both epinephrine and norepinephrine increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow. ○ Addison’s Disease ■ Addison’s disease is caused by a chronic adrenal insufficiency, where there are either low levels of hypocortisolism or hypoadrenalism ● Addison’s = Needs to add ○ Hyperadrenalism ■ Hyperandrogenism ● An excess of androgens can cause ○ Male gynecomastia ■ A disorder in which males see an overgrowth of the mammary tissue that resembles female breasts ○ Early puberty ■ Puberty for individuals with hyperandrogenism can start before they turn 5 years old ● Lina Medina, world’s youngest mother on record ○ Bearded women ■ Women who grow facial hair due to a hormonal imbalance ■ Hypermineralcorticocordism ● An excess of aldosterone can cause an excess of sodium, which leads to hypertension. ○ Consequently, the excess of sodium means that there is too little potassium ● The pancreas is both: ○ An endocrine gland ■ The pancreatic islets serve as the endocrine portion of the pancreas with four different cell types ● Alpha cells ○ Alpha cells secrete glucagon ■ Glucagon raises blood sugar ● Beta cells ○ Beta cells secrete insulin ■ Insulin lowers blood sugar ● Delta cells ○ Delta cells secrete somatostatin ■ Somatostatin inhibits insulin and glucagon ● F cells ○ F cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide ■ The pancreatic polypeptide inhibits: ● Somatostatin ● Gallbladder contraction ● Secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes ○ An exocrine gland ■ Over 99% of acinar cells produce digestive enzymes, which can digest the pancreas in pancreatic cancer and some other diseases ● The Ovaries and Testes ○ The ovaries and testes are gonads that produce gametes (eggs and sperm) and hormones ■ Ovaries produce: ● Two estrogens ● Progesterone ● FSH ● LH ○ All of the above help regulate the menstrual cycle, aid in lactation preparation, and helps maintain pregnancy ● Inhibin ○ Inhibits FSH ● Relaxin ○ Produced during pregnancy to help separate/widen the pelvis and dilate the cervix ■ Testes produce: ● Testosterone ○ Responsible for the descent of the testes before birth ○ Regulates sperm production ○ Stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics such as a deep voice and facial hair ● The Pineal Gland ○ A small endocrine gland located at the roof of the 3rd ventricle of the brain that produces melatonin ■ Melatonin is important for setting the circadian rhythm ● Melatonin is most abundant at night/in darkness. People who have trouble sleeping often are overexposed to light, hampering melatonin production ● Thymus ○ An organ that grows smaller as you age that is extremely important for the development of your immune system ■ The thymus produces: ● Thymosin ● Thymic humoral factor (THF) ● Thymic factor ● Thymopoietin ■ All of the above hormones promote tcell maturation and may slow the aging process ● A tcell is a type of white blood cell that destroys foreign intruders ● Stress ○ There is good stress and bad stress ■ Good stress is termed eustress ● Euphoria=good, so eus tress= good stress ■ Bad stress is called distress ● die=bad, so distress= ad stress ■ Any stimulus that produces a stress response, good or bad, is called a stressor. ● Stressors can be almost anything ● Responses depend on the individual person ○ Stress Response | General Adaptation Syndrome ■ Continuous stressful conditions can lead to a stress response or to general adaptation syndrome ● When stressed out, the body goes into fightorflight mode, which shuts off all nonessential bodily functions and uses all of the body’s resources towards survival. ○ During this time, aldosterone causes the kidneys to retain sodium in case of heavy bleeding ● Next, the body goes into the resistance reaction, which is a stage that can last much longer than the first. In this stage, the body continues to fight a stressor long after the fightorflight response goes away. If the stressor wins, however, the body goes into exhaustion ● In exhaustion, all of the body’s resources are depleted. After a long exposure to multiple hormones, the immune system will become suppressed and the pancreatic beta cells may fail. If not treated, a person in exhaustion can die. The Cardiovascular System ● Blood ○ Blood is one of two fluid connective tissues ○ Blood deals with many functions, some of which include: ■ Transportation ● The blood transports hormones, oxygen, nutrients (like vitamins), and waste products ■ Regulation ● The blood regulates pH (blood pH is very sensitive) and body temperature ■ Protection ● The blood clots when a cut is made ● The blood contains white blood cells, which help our immune systems respond to foreign and adverse intruders ○ Blood is separated into two main categories: ■ Blood ● The blood is further separated into three categories: ○ Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) ■ Important for O 2nd CO2transport ○ White blood cells (Leukocytes) ■ Important for immune defense ○ Platelets ■ Important for clotting ■ Plasma ● Plasma is 91.5% water, with the remaining percentage consisting of solutes (mainly proteins) ● Plasma proteins are proteins found only in blood plasma. These proteins include: ○ Albumins ○ Globulins ■ Some globulins, known as gamma globulins, antibodies, or immunoglobulin, are important during the immune response ■ ○ Fibrinogen ■ Separation of the Blood ● When blood is separated into blood and plasma, it forms layers. ○ The first (bottom) layer consists of red blood cells, which sink to the bottom because they are more dense than white blood cells/platelets and plasma ■ Of the 45% remaining portion of the blood, red blood cells make up 99% ○ The second layer is a thin, buffy white layer between red blood cells and plasma. This layer consists of platelets and white blood cells ■ White blood cells and platelets make up 1% of the formed elements (RBC, WBC, and platelets) ○ The third, top layer is a clearish layer of blood plasma. All together, it forms 55% of the blood ● Formation of Blood Cells ○ Blood is formed in red bone marrow via hemopoiesis ■ Poiesis = production of ■ Hemopoetic growth factors regulate how the stem cells differentiate and proliferate ● Erythropoietin ○ Leads to red blood cells ● Thrombopoietin ○ Leads to platelets ● Colonystimulating factors and interleukins ○ Leads to white blood cells ○ Pluripotent stem cells ■ Stem cells that can develop into many different cell types ● In bone marrow, these stem cells reproduce, proliferate, and differentiate ○ Myloid stem cells ■ Becomes RBCs, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils ○ Lympoid stem cells ■ Becomes lymphocytes ● Becomes B cells, T cells, and NKC ■ Formed elements do not divide once they leave the bone marrow ● Except for lymphocytes ● Red Blood Cells ○ Red blood cells transport oxygen via the protein hemoglobin ■ Hemoglobin, however, can transport CO as 2ll due to it’s chemical makeup ○ 2 million new red blood cells are produced per second ○ RBCs lack a nucleus and organelles because it needs to transport hemoglobin ● Hemoglobin ○ Hemoglobin is made of four polypeptide chains made of beta and alpha helixes to make a quaternary structure ○ The iron molecule in hemoglobin can interchange with one oxygen molecule ■ The iron molecule is responsible for blood’s metallic taste ○ Hemoglobin transports 23% of the body’s total CO 2 ○ Uses nitric oxide to improve blood flow and the delivery of oxygen Glossary ● Mineralocorticoids: Hormones that affect mineral homeostasis ● Aldosterone: A hormone that regulates the homeostasis of sodium and potassium; also adjusts blood pressure and volume ● Glucocorticoids: Hormones that affect glucose homeostasis; also regulates metabolism and stress resistance ● Gonads: Organs that produce sex hormones and gametes ● Gametes: Eggs and sperm ● Melatonin: A hormone derived from serotonin ● Eustress: Helpful stress ● Distress: Harmful stress ● Stressor: Any stimulus that triggers a stress response Abbreviations List ● PTH ○ Parathormone 2+ ● Ca ○ Calcium ● Mg 2+ ○ Magnesium ● HPO 4 ○ Phosphate ● GI ○ An abbreviation which usually refers to the gastrointestinal tract, otherwise known as the digestive tract ● CRH ○ Corticotropinreleasing hormone ● DHEA ○ Dehydroepiandrosterone ■ The major androgen (sex hormone) secreted by the adrenal gland ● ACTH ○ Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'