Bio 108 weeks 1 and 2 notes
Bio 108 weeks 1 and 2 notes BIO 108
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This 69 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Cutler on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology for Non-Majors in biology, science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Bio 108- Chapter 1- Biology Today 1. Chapter 1- Biology Today ○ Living: i. They have order ii. They regulate themselves "homeostasis" Friday, August19, 2016 10:06AM Hypothesis-AnIdea that can be tested iii. They grow and develop BSC 108 Page 1 iii. iv. They useenergy v. They respondto theenvironment vi. They reproduce vii. Populations evolve a. Theme1: TheScopeof Life and Emergent Properties BSC 108 Page 2 i. Life consistsof a vertical hierarchy 1) Molecules----->biosphere b. Theme2: Organisms exchangematter and energy within ecosystems BSC 108 Page 3 i. Every organism interacts with its environment 1) Both are affected a) Ex: plants useCarbon dioxide to makefood. BSC 108 Page 4 a) Ex: plants useCarbon dioxide to makefood. i) All Oxygen in the atmospherecomes fromphotosynthesis ii. Nutrients are recycled BSC 108 Page 5 ii. Nutrients are recycled iii. Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers 1) Energy exists as heat. c. Theme3: Cells are an organism's basic unit. BSC 108 Page 6 c. Theme3: Cells are an organism's basic unit. i. Cells are the lowestlevel of organization that can performall the activities of life. BSC 108 Page 7 ii. All cells… 1) Are enclosedby a membrane 2) UseDNA as the recipe for theprocess of life. BSC 108 Page 8 3) Two Kinds a) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic d. Theme4: Thecontinuity of life is based onthe information in the DNA BSC 108 Page 9 i. Chromosomescontainmostof a cell's genetic material in theform of DNA ii. DNA is the substanceof genes BSC 108 Page 10 iii. Genes are the units of inheritance that transmitinformation from parents to offspring. BSC 108 Page 11 e. Theme5: Diversity is thehallmark of life and the diverse forms of life fit their functions. BSC 108 Page 12 i. There are three main groups of life called domains: 1) Eukarya 2) Bacteria 3) Archae ii. Kingdoms: 1) Plantae 2) Fungi BSC 108 Page 13 Fungi 3) Animalia 4) Protists (Multiple kingdoms) f. Theme6: Evolution i. Heritable changes in populations over generations BSC 108 Page 14 ii. Biology's core themeand the explanation for both: 1) The unity of life 2) The diversity of life. BSC 108 Page 15 ○ Science Derived from the latin verb meaning "to know" It is both □ A way ofknowing (Scientific method) BSC 108 Page 16 □ A body of Knowledge g. Scientistsuse twomain forms ofinquiry. i. Discovery Science 1) Describes natural structures ii. Hypothesis based science 1) Scientific Method BSC 108 Page 17 1) Scientific Method a) Observe and Generalize b) Formulate a hypothesis c) Make a testableprediction d) Experimentand observe BSC 108 Page 18 e) Modify hypothesis as necessaryand repeat steps3 and 4 2) Failure to Falsify a hypothesis does not "prove" it. BSC 108 Page 19 BSC 108 Page 20 Chapter 2- Essential Chemistry for Biology 1. Elements & Atoms In the body a. Element-substancewhichcannot be brokendown into other substancesby chemical reactions Carbon- 18.5% Oxygen- 65% Hydrogen- 9.5% Nitrogen-3.3% Monday, August 22,2016 9:59 AM BSC 108 Page 1 b. 92 naturally occurring elements(103 total) c. Atom is smallestunit of an element that has all its properties. BSC 108 Page 2 d. Most commonElements in Organisms i. Hydrogen- H ii. Carbon- C iii. Nitrogen-N iv. Oxygen- O BSC 108 Page 3 v. Phosphorous-P vi. Sulfur- S e. Others i. Sodium-Na ii. Potassium-K iii. Iron- Fe iv. Magnesium- Mg v. Calcium- Ca vi. Chlorine- Cl BSC 108 Page 4 Chlorine- Cl f. Trace elements are essential for life i. Iodine deficiency causesgoiter. ii. Fluoride in the water. BSC 108 Page 5 1) There has been a sharpdecline in toothdecay in the last few decades 2) Fluoride-containingchemicals have beenadded to drinking water and dental products BSC 108 Page 6 3) The useof fluoride in drinking water illustrates the pointthat organisms are chemical systems BSC 108 Page 7 g. Someelements are harmful tolife: i. Cadmium 1) Has been foundin somechildren's trinkets BSC 108 Page 8 1) Has been foundin somechildren's trinkets 2) A knowncarcinogen(Cancer causing agent) h. Subatomic Particles in Atoms BSC 108 Page 9 i. Protons-positively charged 1) Atomic mass=1 dalton (~2x10^-24g) ii. Neutron-no charge, also 1 dalton BSC 108 Page 10 iii. Elements-Negatively charged 1) Atomic mass is negligible i. Characteristics of Atoms i. Protons and neutrons in nucleus BSC 108 Page 11 Protons and neutrons in nucleus ii. Electrons orbit, may occupydifferent energy levels iii. Elements differin the numberof subatomic particles in their atoms BSC 108 Page 12 1) The numberof protons,the atomic number,determines which elementit is. BSC 108 Page 13 2) An atom's mass number(oftencalled atomic weight) = the numberof protons+Neutrons. BSC 108 Page 14 3) Neutral atom, when# electrons = # protons j. Isotopesof an elementcontain differentnumber of neutrons BSC 108 Page 15 i. Ex: Hydrogen atomic number= 1 1) Atomic weight couldequal 1,2, or 3 2) Atomic weight onperiodic table shows the average of the isotopes BSC 108 Page 16 3) Notall elements have isotopes k. Radioactive isotopes i. The nucleusdecays, giving off particles and energy BSC 108 Page 17 i. The nucleusdecays, giving off particles and energy ii. Uncontrolledexposureto radioactive isotopes can harm living organisms by damaging DNA. BSC 108 Page 18 iii. Medical use 1) PETScans l. Electrons are in orbitals in different energy levels BSC 108 Page 19 i. The firstenergy level needs 2 electrons to be full and stable ii. The secondshell holds a maximum of 8 BSC 108 Page 20 2. Energy and Bonds ○ The capacity to dowork; makea change in matter ○ Joining atoms or breaking up molecules take energy BSC 108 Page 21 a. Potential energy- storedenergy i. Potential energy is storedin thebonds that hold atoms together BSC 108 Page 22 b. Kinetic energy- doing work i. When electrons move to a lower energy level energy is released BSC 108 Page 23 ii. Kinetic energy is released when bonds that hold atoms together are broken c. Types of Bonds BSC 108 Page 24 Types of Bonds i. Ionic □ Attractionbetween+ and - ions □ Ions=atoms thathave gained or lost an electron □ Moderate strength BSC 108 Page 25 Moderate strength □ 2Na + Cl2 --> 2Na Cl- ii. Covalent □ Share electrons betweenatoms □ Hydrogen and oxygen combineto form water BSC 108 Page 26 □ Amongthe strongestbonds □ Single bonds share 1 pair ofelectrons (shownas "-") □ Double bonds share twopairs ofelectrons (shownas "=") BSC 108 Page 27 Double bonds share twopairs ofelectrons (shownas "=") iii. Hydrogen □ Weakest bonds □ Unequal sharing of electrons BSC 108 Page 28 □ In the caseof water, electrons of hydrogen spendmoretime near theoxygen atom Hydrogen bonds are theones betweendroplets of water BSC 108 Page 29 □ Importantin biological molecules 3. Water a. Properties of water BSC 108 Page 30 i. High heat of vaporization 1) As water evaporates, it cools organisms- sweating,panting, transpiration. BSC 108 Page 31 ii. Ice formation 1) When water freezes,it expands and floats due to theformation of a crystalline structure. BSC 108 Page 32 2) Importantto aquatic organisms iii. Cohesionand Adhesion 1) Cohesion a) Attractionbetweenlike molecules (otherwater molecules) BSC 108 Page 33 2) Adhesion a) Attractionbetweendifferentmolecules iv. High Polarity BSC 108 Page 34 1) Water is a polar molecule 2) Unequal charge distribution 3) Electrons spendmoretime around O than H 4) Water molecules from hydrogen bonds with one anotherand with othermolecules BSC 108 Page 35 4) Water molecules from hydrogen bonds with one anotherand with othermolecules 5) H bonds are weak;constantlybroken and reformed. BSC 108 Page 36 v. Solvent 1) Solution-a liquid thatis a homogenous mixtureof two or more substances a) Ex: salt and water 2) Solvent- thedissolving agent ofa solution BSC 108 Page 37 a) Ex: water 3) Solute-the substancethat is dissolved a) Ex: Salt 4) Water is theprimary solvent in cells 5) Many of the chemicals and nutrients of an organism are dissolved BSC 108 Page 38 a) Thesemakeup the cytoplasm of the cell □ Noteverything will dissolve in water BSC 108 Page 39 □ Only thosesubstancesthatare ionic or polar will dissolve readily in water □ Hydrophilic- water loving (polar) BSC 108 Page 40 □ Hydrophobic-a substancethat is nonpolar and will notdissolve readily in water (oils and fats) BSC 108 Page 41 vi. Water can ionize 1) Water can break downinto its ions (atoms that have gained or lost electrons) BSC 108 Page 42 + - 2) In pure water [H ]=[OH ] a) If the concentrationof the hydrogen ion is greater than the hydroxide ion concentrationthenthe solutionis acidic (Hplus > OH negative) BSC 108 Page 43 i) pH < 7 b) If the concentrationof hydrogen ions is less than theconcentrationof hydroxide ions thenthe solutionis basic (H plus < OH negative) BSC 108 Page 44 BSC 108 Page 45 i) pH > 7 vii. pH 1) Changes in pH of body fluids can affect a) How molecules are transportedacross membranes b) How rapidly chemical reactions take place BSC 108 Page 46 c) The shapeof proteins viii. Acidrain 1) Lowers pH of lakes, streams,soils thus can kill organisms directly BSC 108 Page 47 2) Dissolves toxic metals suchas aluminum which contaminatewater systems thus killing organisms indirectly BSC 108 Page 48 BSC 108 Page 49
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