class notes 09/06/2016
class notes 09/06/2016 Hist 1720
Popular in The West and the World 1
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1720 at Clemson University taught by Professor Caroline Dunn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see The West and the World 1 in History at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Hist 1720 Class 09/06/2016 Greece: o Minoan and Mycenaean Regions: Not many text sources that survive to tell us about these people Most info is mainly archeological The Minoan bull- over many years there has been a relationship between man and the bull King Minos- had a complicated relationship with bulls Minotaur- his monstrous step son (half man, half bull) o His wife mated with a bull Kingdom on the current island of Crete Ruler of the Minoans Many scholars have tried to decipher why the bull was such a strong figure, some think it was in recognition of a festival to honor the gods Bronze Bull Leaper from Crete Probably has a religious connotation, possibly an offering Created during the bronze age- prosperous age o Stronger than other metals Tin and copper were used also in the sculpture, which suggests that the Minoan people were participating in trade with other regions Knossos Architecturally complex The palace of Knossos- grand and beautiful, frescos suggest religious significance Mycenae: o Very militaristic society o Palaces suggesting royal authority o Places designed to set people apart o People of the works written by Homer Iliad Odyssey o Military artifacts prove that the Mycenaean’s are more about glory than the Minoans o The Iliad: The story goes back further than the events that take place in the text The figure Achilles: The warrior who is fighting for the Greeks A mortal human being but also descended from the gods His mother wanted to make him immortal: dumped him into the river of immortality o She held him by the ankles, the one part of him that did not receive the seal of immortality: ex. Achilles’ heel Eris (goddess of discord) was not invited to Achilles’ parents’ wedding She attends the wedding in secret and leaves an apple on the table for the “fairest” o Who is the fairest? Zeus orders Paris (a human being) to make the decision (a Prince from Troy) He choses Aphrodite because she promises him the most beautiful woman in the world (Helen of Troy) – a GREEK woman, not from Troy Helen was married to King Menelaus o Menelaus was the king of Sparta Aphrodite arranges that Paris to be sent off from troy and Helen leaves with him to go to Troy o Leaving behind a lot of very angry Greek men- their Queen has been stolen away from them Helen- known as “the face that launched a thousand ships” Menelaus and Agamemnon go and fight Troy because of this for more than 9 years Iliad: Story ends with the famous story of the Trojan horse (the Greeks plan) How is the theme of “anger” displayed by both men and gods, developed throughout the Iliad? o The Greeks have anger and want vengeance on Troy for taking their Queen o Ag. And Achilles take women from the city of Troy Ag.’s woman is the daughter of Apollo’s priest So now Apollo is mad Ag. Will not release his daughter This leads to Apollo’s vengeance Causes arrows to be shot down from the sky onto the Greek people Now the Greeks are upset that Ag. Won’t give her up Achilles pleads with him, Ag. Agrees as long as everyone else gives up their women Achilles is mad again because it is not his war and he doesn’t want to give up his captive Ag. Then takes Achilles’ woman away Achilles is furious- he refuses to continue fighting for the Greeks Achilles is upset that Hector kills his possibly? Male lover Hector is displayed as the hero even though this is a Greek story – he goes to fight Achilles o Hector asks that whoever wins will not dishonor the body of the loser o Achilles tells him no he wants vengeance o Hector is defeated and Achilles does dishonor his body o Hector’s father ( King of Troy) begs for his son’s body to be returned, finally Achilles is moved to pity Agamemnon and Menelaus background: This is before the period of war Ag. Is said to be the son of Atreus o Tantalus-ancestor Ended up inviting the gods to dinner At which he had killed his son and killed him- testing the gods to see if they can tell The gods knew, and punished him by sending him down to Haetes and starving him o Pelops- ancestor Had two sons Thyestes and Atreus Thyestes seduced Atreus’ wife Atreus finds the children of Thyestes and kills them and cooks them for dinner and invites Thyestes for dinner to eat his own children o Ag. Comes from this family of vengeance The Dark Ages: Something happens to the Mycenaean palaces and cities: demolished by archeological evidence About 90% of Greece’s population is lost, whether it be emigration (leaving) or death Basically deserted and we don’t know why or how We do know that the end date of the Dark Age was the year associated with the first Olympic games- 776 BCE The Greeks revived and come together The Olympics were to honor and worship Zeus Stadion- a well known race (sprint) in the Greek Olympics o Where we get the word stadium Women had their own events Competed in the nude o The strength of the human body is very much admired in the society An individual competition, not a national competition Polis- city states o Even though Greece has many of these that have rivalries, one did not compete for their polis, it was individual No metals at this time, olive branches were used instead A city that is controlling smaller rural areas around it- that’s why its called city states Warfare changes from individual heroes to men that form an army and trained to defend a polis (like a militia) o hoplites- must be prepared to defend your neighbor with your shield o team work vs. defending yourself o this came about with democracy Sparta: Extremely militaristic society They had slaves to work their land (helots) who made up about 75% of their population Well trained military to keep the helot population under control Spartans believed that strong children were born from strong parents (therefore father and mother needed to have a strong body) The Persian invasion- when Sparta really came to power Xerxes (Persian ruler) Invades Sparta Greeks will be hugely outnumbered in soldiers and ships o Force the Persians into a very narrow area for battle where numbers do not matter as much o Eventually a Greek tells the Persians that there is another way around The Spartans are all killed but they accomplished holding them off so that the other Greek poils’ could get organized The Athenians then go onto win a naval battle against the Persians The defeat of the Persians eventually Persia is associated with land soldiers and Athenians associated with the navy Both nations come to an alliance so that this doesn’t happen again
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