Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Notes TXA 325M
Popular in History of Dress and Cultural Change II
Popular in School of Human Ecology
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cazares Annelle on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TXA 325M at University of Texas at Austin taught by Gail Chovan, MA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see History of Dress and Cultural Change II in School of Human Ecology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
I. Historical Background a. Rococo reached height during Louis XV reign b. Not very popular King i. Wasn’t qualified to rule ii. Wars put France in debt iii. Never solved debt iv. Lavish life while France starved c. France was popular tho i. Dominated culture of western Europe ii. French international language of Europe d. Louis XVI wellmeaning king i. Hunted, made and fixed locks ii. Unfit for the position of King e. Marie Antoinette i. 14yearold Austrian princess, wife of Louis XVI ii. Didn’t like customs of French court iii. Unpopularity led to no support for monarchy f. French Revolution i. Philosophers criticized French society and Government 1. American Revolution inspired their own 2. Defeat with Austria and Prussia allowed radicals to take over a. Ended monarchy and rulers ii. National Assembly 1. Formed from bankruptcy of 1789 2. Wrote own constitution g. The Arts i. Discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum 1. Increased interest in classical antiquity 2. Neoclassical styles appeared in art and architecture mid century a. Women’s fashion end of century ii. French Influence 1. In some way, European countries had connections with France a. Led to French influence of court styles i. Only Venice was independent until Napoleon handed it to Austria h. Georgian Era i. Occurred in England ii. Queen Anne, then George 13 ruled during the Century i. Anglo mania (1780) i. English ideas strong on France in late 1700s in government and civil rights ii. Influence extended to fashion II. 18 Century French Society a. 1723, Louis XV returned to Versailles after left abandon i. Royal center, previously France b. Madame de Pompadour i. Official Mistress of Louis XV ii. Major influence on styles on art during reign c. Marie Antoinette i. Created tension with court ii. Abandoned Traditional court etiquette iii. Freely bought clothes, jewelry, in bad economy iv. Factor for decline in support for monarchy III. 18 century English Society a. Less centered on court than France b. Diversity of Occupations i. Many apprentice’s had different occupations with clothing 1. Ex: Shoe and Wig makers, tailors c. Men Fashion Categories i. Undresslounging clothes ii. Dressdaytime/evening wear iii. Full dressformal evening iv. Nightgowndressing/informal gown worn indoors v. Powdering jacketWear to protect against wig powder vi. Frock coat Men’s coat d. Women Fashion Categories i. Undress/Halfdress/Morning dressHouse wear ii. HabitRiding/Tailor made costume iii. CoatPetticoat iv. GreatcoatCoat v. False rumpBustle e. Different classes mix and mingled, even married! IV. American Colonies 18 century a. Following Fashion i. Imported and copied European clothes b. Quakers i. Men wore plain hats and no wigs ii. Women wore plain hats, replaced by plain bonnets c. Working Class i. Made for convenience 1. Chemise, petticoat skirt, and short gown 2. Apron, neck kerchief, and head cap d. Laborers i. Farmers and artisans had smocks 1. Laborers placed a leather apron over it e. Native American Style i. Frontier men copied style ii. Deerskin smock and shirt iii. Fringes iv. Deerskin leggings for woodland travel v. Caps with animal tail V. Production and Acquisition of Clothing and Textiles a. Advances in Textile Technology i. Weaving speed increased, more yarn consumed ii. Steam and waterpower ran machinery iii. Cotton benefitted, thus, much cheaper b. Home versus Factory Production i. Colonies important British market ii. British banned Colonies from buying Asian goods 1. Britain sold Asian goods to Colonies iii. Colonies couldn’t buy from France 1. After revolution, restriction lifted iv. Lower Classes 1. Made own clothes 2. Professionals hopped from home to home to weave a. Some had own shops c. Clothing Manufacturing and Sale i. Affluent had clothes made ii. Ready to wear always around iii. Lower classes 1. Country made clothes, townspeople paid high prices for clothes 2. Very common to steal clothes 3. People bought from thieves VI. Influences on Costume a. Asian trade influenced styles i. Asian fabrics and European replicas made into handsome garments b. Anglomania i. French crazy for British style ii. Simpler styles, riding habits, and Ridingtotes iii. Only elaborate in court styles VII. Sources of Information about Costume i. Museums and Paintings ii. Portraitists Joshua Reynolds hated the fashion. b. Costume for Men 18 century: Garments i. Drawers ii. Shirts were the same iii. Steinkirk th c. Men Costume mid18 century i. Boot cuffs ii. Fall iii. Frock coats iv. Smock frock v. Ditto suit d. Changes after Mid18 century i. Shape of Outfits 1. Fullness of coats decreased 2. Side pleats for swords removed 3. Silhouette narrowed 4. Front coat curved towards side ii. Stocks iii. Surtouts replaced capes and cloaks iv. Indian Gowns/ Banyans 1. Strong Asian Influence e. Hair and Headdress i. Fullbottomed wigs and toupees ii. Higher and wider in 1750 and 1780, respectively iii. Queues, club wigs/ catogans 1. Human, horse, goat hair 2. Powdered for formal wigs iv. Chapeau bras v. Tricornes (19 century) /bicornes (1780) vi. Top/Round Hats (After 1770s) vii. Turbanlike caps f. Footwear i. Artificial calves, pads attached to leg (1770s) ii. Square shaped and high heeled shoes (1720s) 1. Later forms rounder and low heels iii. B4 1750 and after 1770, red heels were hot iv. Slippers/dress shoes low heels and flat soles v. Spatter dashes/Spats vi. Jackboots sturdy and made for riding g. Accessories and Jewelry i. Walking sticks and snuff boxes 1. Tobacco inhaled ii. Rings, brooches, shoe buckles iii. Powder, Perfume, Clean shaven VIII. Costume for Women: 18 Century i. 17201780, hoops or paniers ii. 17701780, pads and bustles replaced iii. French still wore hoops after Revolution for ceremonies iv. Preserved in formal court for English b. Undergarments i. Cambric, dimity, flannel, or calico fabrics for straight undergarments ii. Corsets/Stays 1. Laced in back, sometimes both sides 2. Side lacing for pregnant and stout women 3. Constructed to allow a stomacher iii. Jumps iv. 1740s reached max width c. Outer Garments: 17151730 i. Sacque/Robe battante/Robe volante/ innocente ii. Louis XIV – Louis XV, court styles relaxed iii. Pet en L’air and MantuaStyle gown 1. More pop in England than France d. Hair and Headdress i. Buns and face framing ringlets replaced over the top hairdos ii. Pinners iii. Mob caps IX. 17301760 a. Garments i. Robe a la Francais and a l’Anglaise 1. Watteau Back ii. Stomachers and Petticoats showed iii. Engageants iv. Casaquin b. Hair and Headress i. Smooth combed bun ii. Tete de mouton iii. Bergere/Shepherdess hats iv. Tricornes/Jockey hats X. 17601790 a. Robe a la Francaise i. After 1770, pads were worn for hips ii. Drapery style came in iii. 1780, no longer fashionable b. Robe a l’Anglaise i. Continued in 1780 ii. Fullness moved to back from sides c. 17701780, shorter dress lengths i. Polonaise ii. Round gowns iii. Redingote dresses iv. Chemise a la reine v. Caracao d. Hair and Headdress i. Extreme Sizes ii. Decorated with beads, feathers, etc iii. 1780s, less height but more fullness 1. Hedgehog fashion iv. Calashes/Caleches XI. Other costume components: 18 Century a. Outdoor Garments i. Cloaks cut full, varying lengths ii. Overcoats came when hoops left in last 2 decades iii. Tippetsnarrow fur or feather pieces b. Footwear i. Stockings held by garters ii. Latches, mules, pattens c. Accessories i. Bags attached by ribbon to dress ii. Fans, parasols, black masks d. Jewelry i. Necklaces matching earing ii. Gold neck watches iii. Jeweled hair pins iv. Pearl, pendants, cross necklaces e. Cosmetics i. Red lips, cheeks, and fingernails ii. Eyebrows groomed iii. Patches and plumpers iv. Perfume and wash balls XII. Active Sport a. Women inspired by men for riding clothes b. Nude baths in seas, some resort special costume i. Good for health c. Tennis, cricket, and golf played by men i. Skating too XIII. Costume for Children 18 Century i. Babies in swaddling clothes ii. Skirts 67years iii. After 67 years, adult style iv. Ribbons of childhood on young men and teen girls v. Boarding schools were common, as well as runaway children b. Second Half i. JeanJacques Roussea credit with creating freedom for children’s clothes ii. Reynolds paintings could have popularized simple kids clothes iii. Muslin used for clothing c. Guidelines i. InfantsWrappers for movements and air ii. Older Children No tightness, belt, restricting limb movement and growth iii. Keep children in frocks iv. Bright colors v. Plain and comfortable d. Swaddling given up e. Boys Fashion i. Skeleton Suit ii. Boys Start to wear trouser f. Simple straight outfits for girls i. Cloaks for outdoors ii. Mob caps indoors g. Age 1112 adult fashion.
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