Chapter 11 TXA 325M
Popular in History of Dress and Cultural Change II
Popular in School of Human Ecology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cazares Annelle on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TXA 325M at University of Texas at Austin taught by Gail Chovan, MA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see History of Dress and Cultural Change II in School of Human Ecology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Historical Background 1790-1820, Napoleon Bonaparte ruled France Directoire Period (1790-1800) French Revolution, Directory government (5-person executive system), Empire Period, Napoleonic empire. I. Revolution and Directory a. Revolution leadership was in the upper-class bourgeoisie. Resented nobility for controlling government, church, and armed forces. b. National Assembly i. Abolished Feudalism ii. Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizens iii. First Constitution c. 1792 war of Austria and Prussia 1. Caused Monarchy to be Overthrown and replaced with French Republic d. Revolution i. King tried an executed 1793 ii. Reign of Terror 1793-94 iii. Jacobins overthrown in 1794 iv. Directoire ruled France for 5 years. v. Fast Facts 1. Red, White and Blue 2. Bonnet rouge: red woolen peasant cap e. Fashion of Post-Revolution i. Resembling and inspired by revivals of fine arts as well as ancient Greek and Roman philosophies. II. France: The Empire a. Napoleon Bonaparte i. Saved Directoire from mob ii. Victories over Austrians in Italy and British/Turks in Egypt made him hero. b. Directoire i. Governed ineffectively c. Napoleon as Ruler i. Himself and 2 other consuls took executive power ii. Emperor of France 1804 iii. Made France awesome! iv. Controlled Europe but couldn’t control Great Britain v. 1812, marched to Moscow but Tsar refused to surrender 1. Soldiers defeated by Russians vi. 1814, exiled to Island of Elba d. Fashion of Napoleons Rule i. Basic style lines continued, but not nudity ii. Napoleon more conservative 1. Encouraged the older, elaborate court styles pre- revolution e. French Economy i. Napoleon discouraged exports like muslin ii. Instead of buying shawls from India, French can re-create it iii. Both himself and wife Josephine had huge wardrobes III. England a. King George III ruled 1738-1820 b. Prince of Wales ruled for him 1810 i. Because of his gentlemen nature, the court become fashion center c. War with France i. For majority of Regency Period, war was with France ii. Trafalgar defeat of 1805 ended fear of France iii. Peace came with defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815 d. English vs French Fashion i. French had narrow silhouette and empire waist ii. English had padded roll under waistline for a full skirt 1. Due to war, trade and ideas restricted iii. After a few years, English fashion resembled French IV. United States a. Native American and European styles collided b. Indian blanket morphed into hooded coats for outdoor sports in Canada and U.S. c. Canadian settlers made Native footwear out of durable farm animal hide Arts and Costumes styles of this Period People inspired by art and philosophy of ancient civilizations Revolution in Men’s Clothes Men no longer wore bright, extravagant, lavish styles of clothing yet the breeches, waistcoats and other types of clothing remained. England led this change. George Brummel, friend of Prince of Wales, set the image of men’s fashion. Production and Acquisition of Textiles and Apparel Industrial Revolution caused growth in industry. Cotton gin and water- powered machines made cotton cheap. Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a weaving loom, he sold 10,000 looms in 10 years. Women’s clothing homemade/seamstress while men had ready to wear tailor made clothing. Sources of Information About Costume There is surviving clothing from this period to observe how they were made. Not much info tho on how they are worn with other garments, hair, and accessories. Paintings can give an idea. Directoire and Empire Periods Women’s clothing was more elaborate, complicated, and evolving than Men’s I. Garments a. Corsets vs Chemise i. Fashionable women stopped wearing a corset but instead, a chemise at most during the Directoire era (1795-1800). Average women continued to wear corset over chemise b. Drawers wear worn earlier in Europe than England and Colonies c. Grecian Bend- Bustle like padded rolls at the back of waistline causing women to bend forward like a flamingo. d. Dresses were straight and tubular, gathering of fabric at back was common at end of 1700s. e. Dresses were trained or untrained until 1812 when dresses wear shorter f. Round Gowns g. High Stomacher Dress h. Necklines i. Low cut, Round or Square ii. Higher ones had ruffle or tied around the neck by a drawstring i. Sleeves wear short/long, fitted/full, straight/puffed. j. Fabric and Design i. Lightweight cotton, silk, and muslin suited described styles ii. Directoire period had white, plain, style gowns iii. Empire Period had pastel colors, and decorated embroideries II. Outdoor Garments a. Shawls, capes, cloaks worn over dresses outdoors b. Spencer c. Pelisse III. Hair and Headdress a. Combed back while ringlets/curls were at the back of head and front of face b. A la victim and A la Titus c. Jockey caps for riding, Turbans, and small fabric hats inspired by ancient Greek and Rome d. Bonnets, Toques, gypsy hats, and day caps e. Worn outdoors but also for formal events IV. Footwear a. No more heels, shoes shaped feet b. Knee high lace ups c. Short boots reached to calf d. Pattens still used to protect shoes V. Accessories a. Gloves were both short and long b. Made from silk, leather, or net c. Reticules and Indispensables d. Muffs, parasols, fans and handkerchiefs VI. Jewelry a. The usual: necklaces, rings, earrings b. Watches pinned to dress and brooches to close it c. Bracelets worn on the upper arm to imitate Greek and Roman style Costume Components for Men I. Garments a. Undergarments i. Drawers similar to 1700s ii. Shirts pleated or ruffled iii. Cravats iv. Stocks b. Suit i. Coat, waistcoats, breeches or trousers ii. Colors can contrast c. Clothing for casual or formal only differed by color i. Lavish silk and velvet fabrics suited for formal wear at English/French courts d. Coats i. Front ended at waist ii. Tails ended below the knee iii. Closings single/double breasted e. Waistcoats i. Front only visible, back made from plain cotton/fabric ii. Only small amount was shown f. Lower Garments i. Breeches worn extensively until 1807 ii. Pantaloons iii. Cossacks iv. Trouser were fashionable during revolution, out right after Rev., but accepted some time later again after 1807. II. Outdoor Garments a. Very full b. Single/Double breasted c. Knee/Full length d. One/Multiple capes e. Spencers III. Dressing gown, Banyan a. Ankle Length b. Full flared skirt c. Decorative wool, silk, cotton d. Street/Office wear IV. Hair and Headdress a. Short hair b. Clean shaven c. Top hat and bicorne V. Footwear a. Revolution may have stopped shoe buckle fashion i. Tie closed at front b. Low round heels and toes c. Boots over the knee and lower in back for bending/kneeling i. Named after military personal VI. Accessories a. Cotton/Leather gloves b. Quizzing glasses VII. Jewelry a. Limited b. Rings, watch fobs, shirt/neck cloth brooches VIII. Cosmetics a. Fashion-conscious men i. Rouge on cheeks, bleached white hands ii. Cologne Costume for Children: Empire Period Girls I. Garments a. Dresses same as adult women only shorter for young and teen girls b. Pantalettes under dresses c. Shawls and pelisses outdoors II. Hair and Headdress a. Small wear simple and natural b. Teen the same as women, popular with Grecian c. Bonnets III. Footwear a. Slippers/Boots made from soft leather and fabric Boys I. Garments a. Infancy to 4-5 years i. Dresses like girls only shorter b. 4-5 years i. Trousers under skirts c. After 6-7 years i. Skeleton suits 1. Loose shirt 2. Wide frilled collar 3. High-waisted ankle-length trousers buttoned to shirt d. After 11-12 years i. Replica of men styles ii. Overcoats in winter II. Hair and Headdress a. Short or long hair III. Footwear a. Slippers/Soft boots
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