Bio1107K, Week 3 Notes
Bio1107K, Week 3 Notes BIOL 1107K
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany B. on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107K at Georgia Gwinnett College taught by Latanya Hammonds in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I w/Lab in Biology at Georgia Gwinnett College.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
9.6.16 Biology1107KNotes[Week3] Lecture Notes + − ????2???? ↔ ???? + ???????? *Memorizethisequationfor + −7 pH ???? ] = 1????10 ???? ???????? = 7 = −log[???? ] 2???? ???? ↔ ???? ????+ ???????? − 2 3 ???????????? = −log [−???????? ;???????????? = 7 ???????? + ???????????? = 14 pH buffer—the purposeof abuffer is to buffer the change in apH (it prevents the pH from changingin a reaction).They soak upthe other ion.If the solution is becomingmore basic,the buffer has to release more H ions.If the solution is becomingmore acidic,the buffer needs to release more OH ions. Helpfullink: http://chemcollective.org/activities/tutorials/buffers/buffers1 The Molecules of Life All living things are made upof four classes of large biological molecules:carbohydrates,lipids, proteins,andnucleic acids Within cells, small organic molecules are joinedtogether to form larger molecules Macromoleculesare large molecules composedof thousands of covalently connectedatoms Molecular structureandfunctionare inseparable Macromolecules are Polymers,built from monomers A polymer is a longmolecule consistingof many similar buildingblocks These smallbuilding-block molecules are called monomers Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers: o Carbohydrates o Proteins o Nucleic acids The Synthesis andBreakdown of BiologicalPolymers A condensation reaction or more specifically adehydration reaction occurswhentwo monomers bondtogether through the loss of awater molecule Enzymes are macromolecules that speedupthe dehydration process Polymers are disassembledto monomers by hydrolysis,areaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction Macromolecules Proteins (amino acids) Lipids (fatty acids) Nucleic Acid(nucleotides) Carbohydrates (sugars) FunctionalGroups The seven functionalgroups that are the most important in the chemistry of life: o Hydroxyl o Carbonyl o Carboxyl–foundon acids o Amino o Sulfthydryl o Phosphate –phouric or phate o Methyl Isomers think of the alpha andbeta of sugars. The only differenceis that one is above andthe other is below. have the same molecular number/formulabut it’s just different as to who is holdinghands with whom. Structuralisomer is where the formulais the same but they are holdinghands different. Trans—you can’t cut the moleculeandyour body can’t break down the transfat andit just stays in your bloodstream.Cisfat is breakable. Alpha 1-4 is the link between to molecules (it tells you which carbons are linked) Polysaccharides Starch—astorage polysaccharideof plants,consists entirely of glucose monomers\ o Amylopectin is the stuff that keeps jelly/jello togetherso it can jiggle. Amylose is the other type. Glycogen—is astorage polysaccharide in animal o Glycogen is structuredjust like amylopectin/amylosein spirals but it has more branches. Cellulose—is amajor component of the tough wallof plant cell o Glucose in fat is helicalwhile cellulose has betalinkages which makes it lay flat. (which makes it so we can make paper) o Cellulose = paper Chitin—another structuralpolysaccharides andis foundin the exoskeleton of arthropods 2 Proteins Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells Protein functions includestructuralsupport,storage,transport,cellular communication,movement, and protection Enzymes are atype of protein that acts as a catalyst to speedupchemicalreactions. o Enzymes can perform their functions repeatedly A protein consists of one or more polypeptide o Polypeptidesare polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids Amino acids are organic molecules with carboxylandamino groups o They differ in their properties due to differing side chains,calledR groups o Amino acids are linkedby peptide bonds o A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids andthey range in length from a few to more than a thousandmonomers. Each polypeptide has aunique linear sequenceof amino acids A functionalprotein consists of one or morepolypeptides twisted,folded,andcoiledinto a unique shape o The sequence of amino acids determines aprotein’s three dimensionalstructureandits structure determines its function. Four Levels of Protein Structure The primary structure of aprotein is its unique sequence of amino acids o Determinedby inheritedgenetic information Secondary structure,foundin most proteins,consists of coils andfolds in the polypeptide chain o The coils/folds result from hydrogenbonds betweenrepeatingconstituents of the polypeptide backbone o helix is coiled pleated sheet is folded Tertiary structure is determinedby interactions amongvariousside chains (R groups) o Interactions include:hydrogenbonds,ionic bonds,hydrophobic interactions,andvan der Waals interactions Strongcovalent bonds calleddisulfide bridges may reinforce theprotein’s structure Quaternary structureresults whenaprotein consists of multiple polypeptide chains o Collagen is a fibrous protein consistingof threepolypeptides coiledlike arope o Hemoglobin is a globular protein consistingof four polypeptides:two alphaandtwo beta chains Note:Themajorityoflecturethisweekwas spentworkingtheadditionalpracticeproblems inclass.Thereis alotof materialleftuncovered inthesenotesbutwillbecoveredinthereviewI createforthefirsttest. 3
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