US Global Leadership
US Global Leadership PSC 321
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday March 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 321 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Frazier in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see US National Security in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/27/15
US Global Leadership What is leadership 0 Definition 1 3 parts gt 1 to directcommand 2 to go first lead by example 3 to induce o 3 types of international leadership I Hegemony gt one state dominates international affairs and influences policy I Unilateralism gt onesided action ex acting alone when facing a security threat I Multilateralism gt acting with a multitude of other actors ex coalitionalliance 0 Definition 2 ability to produce collaborative action by several actors use of power to orchestrate actions of a group toward a collective end 0 Legitimacy gt right to claims of some sort behavioral moral etc I Normative process of gaining legitimacy 0 Longterm engagement in a certain action makes other assumeexpect you to carry out that same action in the future 0 Repeated action gain right to that action 0 This action can be viewed as the concept of leadership so continued leadership in international affairs ie the US makes other states recognize you as having a certain right to be a leader in international affairs I Process vs substance ways to gain legitimacy 0 Process legitimacy based on way to doing things are carried out 0 Does a state abide by universal values and international law when carrying out certain action 0 Substance legitimacy based on outcome gt ends justify the means 0 Does the end result of an action by a state justify the action it carried out US legitimacy in the international system 0 Challenges to US legitimacy 0 Double standards gt say one thing but do another I Ex promote democracy but partner with autocratic states for certain things 0 Idea that legitimacy comes from home not abroad Who conveys legitimacy to the US I Should the US rely solely on its citizens and ignore the international community when it comes to determining an action legitimate I Which holds more power in determining the legitimacy of an action domestic public or international community I National pride vs subjugation to international views Leadership Facets 5 types 0 ProcessInitiation gt identify a problem create strategies and implement strategies in a way that other states follow your lead Issue Framing gt frame perceived security issues so that other states reach the same conclusion as you regarding those issues have other states see things your way 0 Ex terrorism I US has worked to make other countries see terrorism as a global threat rather than just a regional issue Interest Consideration gt try to take into account the problems of other states while not diminishing your own ability to solve your problems 0 Try to reconcile varying issues and obstacles facing different countries so that a solution to a common problem can be reached Institutional Development gt find a way to deal wissues and create solutions via a third party that countries work through 0 Ex NATO IMF alliances Deployment of Power gt willingness and ability to use coercive resources to gain cooperation and concensus on security issues 0 Willingness to use force resolve and actual ability to use force capability are two very different but important things How to evaluate legitimacy 0 Right process gt Does a state go through the right steps before starting a certain action 0 Ex US invasion of Iraq gt US circumvented the UN thus reducing its claim to a legitimate right to the invasion 0 Consistency wnorms gt Does a state work winstitutions and uphold universal values 0 Consistent and cohesive implementation gt how effectively and consistently are plans carried out and implemented 0 Does a state s plan of action produce its desired results 0 Does a state treat other the same or with bias I Ex two states want to develop nuclear weapons and the US allows one state to develop nuclear weapons while preventing the other state from developing nuclear weapons quotSoft Power in exerting leadership 0 Refrain from using coercion to gain leadership status 0 Use incentives rather than forcethreats to make others buy into what you want to happen 0 Appear more of a friend than foe I It is easier to maintain good relations among friends than foes What Constrains US leadership 0 Fragmentation win US foreign policy process 0 Growth in the bureaucracy gt more actions involved harder to coordinate things 0 Growth in Congressional oversight gt more committees more avenues for foreign policy to be debatedchangedshot down 0 Extremism gt focus all resources on one new security threat ex US policy toward terrorism 0 Leads to tunnel view where other security threats are blocked out or become less important 0 Reasons for why extremism behavior develops I Executive institutional advantage gt President s power increase during crises so heshe can influence security priorities I Rally around the flag effect gt surge in national pride that makes people be more supportive of decisions of govt leaders I Groupthink I Uniformed domestic public regarding foreign policy I Lack of accountability held against govt leaders 0 Uniformed public doesn t understand the implications of certain govt leaders actions so there is few people to stand up against the leaders I Low audience cost 0 Uniformed public few challengers to govt decisions govt can operate wo fear of negative repercussions political backlash loss of support from the domestic audience the citizens US leadership problem 0 Other states are taking more of a unilateral role rather than turning to the US to solve issues 0 More states besides just US are taking on a leadership role win international affairs 0 US isn t the automatic goto state to fix international issues 0 States try to fix issues on their own first
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