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RAT 1 Study Guide

by: Sara Ali

RAT 1 Study Guide BIOL1302/10025

Sara Ali

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RAT 1 Study Guide
General Biology 2
Rachel Hudspeth
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Ali on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1302/10025 at University of Houston Downtown taught by Rachel Hudspeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston Downtown.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
                      Module Reading Guide RAT 1 • The Fossil Record opens the window into the world of long ago and  provides glimpses of the evolution of life over billions of years. The fossil records shows us that there have been great changes in the kinds of  organisms on Earth at different point in time.  Concept 24.1  Four Stages in which they hypothesize that chemical and physical processes  could have produced simple cells through a sequence of four main stages: • 1. The abiotic(nonliving) synthesis of small organic molecules, such as  amino acids and nitrogenous bases. • 2.  The joining of these small molecules into macromolecules, such as  proteins and nucleic acids. • 3. The packaging of these molecules into protocells, droplets with  membranes that maintained an internal chemistry different from that of  their surroundings. • 4. The origin of self replicating molecules that eventually made in  inheritance possible • Simple organic molecules such as amino acids formed by as demonstrated  by Miller/Stanley experiment that numerous amino acids had formed under conditions that simulated a volcanic eruption. The role that meteors played  in this processes was that. Miller­Urey experiment showed that the abiotic  synthesis of organic molecules is possible under various assumptions about the composition of the early atmosphere. • Could macromolecules like proteins and nucleic acids been formed   spontaneously on Earth was supported by a 2009 study that demonstrated  that one key step, the abiotic synthesis of RNA monomers, can occur  spontaneously from simple precursor molecules.  • Pro tocells are membrane­enclosed droplets that have some properties of  cells, vesicles are fluid filled compartments enclosed by a membrane­like  structure and vesicles can exhibit certain properties of life, including  simple reproduction and mmetabolism . Montromrillonite, is a soft mineral clay produced by the weathering of volcanic ash which increases the rate  of vesicle self assembly. This clay, which is thought to have been common on early Earth , provides surface on which organic molecules have become concentrated, increasing the likelihood that the molecules will react with  each other and form vesicles.  •  The first Genetic material on Earth was most likely RNA ,  and not DNA.  RNA plays a central role in protein synthesis but it can also perform many  enzyme­ like catalytic functions. RNA catalysts are called ribozymes.  Concept 20.1  Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or a group of species. Phylogenies show evolutionary characteristics, Systematists depict evolutionary relationships as branching phylogenetic trees.  • Organisms are named through a system called binomial nomenclature.  Linnaeus ’s binomial classification system gives organisms two part names: a genus plus a specific epithet.  • The 3 domains of life are Bacteria,Archae, and Eukarya. The kingdoms  within Eukarya are Animalia, Plantae, Protista, and Fungi. • Classification is the grouping of organisms into hierarchical taxa, including species, genera, families, orders, classes, phyla, kingdoms. Phylogeny is the study of how organisms are related to each other. Phylogeny can be done without subsequent classification, but classification requires a knowledge of phylogeny in order to make the taxa natural. For example, you could classify dolphins as fishes but knowing their phylogeny you know they are mammals, so they must be classified with mammals. There is a conflict between classification and phylogeny in that classification requires discrete taxa whereas phylogeny produces a continuous tree. Therefore, sometimes we have to define the taxa by force even if their separation based on phylogeny is difficult. For example, if you had two taxa "red" and "yellow", you are forced to make a decision of putting "orange" in either of them. Concept 20.2 • Homologus structure examples • Bird and bat win gs are analogous — that is, they have separate evolutionary origins, but are superficially similar because they have both experienced natural selection that shaped them to play a key role in flight. Analogies are the result of convergent evolution. Concept 20.3 • Shared ancestral character is a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon. Hair is a character shared by all mammals but not found in their ancestors. Shared derived character is an evolutionary novelty unique to clade.


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