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HDFS 005 Human Development Notes Tues 9/6/16

by: Kelsey White

HDFS 005 Human Development Notes Tues 9/6/16 HDFS005

Marketplace > University of Vermont > HDFS005 > HDFS 005 Human Development Notes Tues 9 6 16
Kelsey White

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Detailed notes of class lecture and powerpoint. Professor: Lawrence Shelton
Human Development
Lawrence Shelton
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey White on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS005 at University of Vermont taught by Lawrence Shelton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Tuesday, September 6, 2016 HDFS▯ Genes and Heredity ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Chemistry and Life▯ -Protons + Electrons + Neutrons = Atoms▯ -Atoms combine to form molecules▯ -and in living things, some of these molecules combine to form deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).▯ -Strings of DNA are organized into genes. ▯ -A gene is a particular sequence or pattern of DNA molecules. ▯ ▯ Where did I come from and what did I bring with me?▯ -I came from my mother’s ovum and my father’s sperm and brought with me the 23 chromosomes from each parent. ▯ ▯ During mitosis, there are 46 chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell and they are split into two parts so there are 23 of each. ▯ Cell Nucleus▯ -the chromosomes with the genes are contained in the nucleus of the cell▯ -when cells divide (mitosis) the chromosomes copy themselves, making two complete sets, and the nucleus divides in two, each becoming the complete nucleus of the new cell. ▯ -this is how cell proliferation and growth occur. ▯ ▯ What Genes Do ▯ -the genes in the chromosomes that are in the nucleus of the cell tell the cell what to do. ▯ -genes are the recipes for specific proteins▯ -proteins make up the cell structures▯ -and transport substances within the cell▯ -and serve as enzymes. ▯ ▯ ▯ 1 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Enzymes▯ -enzymes direct molecular actions—they break up molecules into component parts and/ or cause new molecules to be formed. ▯ -so what gets made or broken down or transformed in the cell depends on specific enzymes, which are proteins, which are produced in the cell at the direction of the genes in the nucleus. ▯ ▯ Different Cells with Identical Genes▯ -Even though every cell with a nucleus has the same genes, in its nucleus, cells are different because different genes are activated in different types of cells. ▯ -Because different genes are active, what one type of cell does is different from what other types of cells do. ▯ -We do different things not because we have different genes, but because different genes are operating (switched on and off). The other cells have the same genes, they are just not active. ▯ ▯ All Heredity is Physiological▯ -What cells do determines the underlying physiological basis for▯ ▯ -our growth▯ ▯ -our appearance▯ ▯ -much of our activity▯ ▯ -the characteristics of that activity▯ -Every characteristic that is hereditary meaning it is genetic, must exist at the cellular level. ▯ -Genes only operate within cells. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 2 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Gene Expression▯ -The process of translating the ▯ ▯ - Genotype—the specific forms of DNA in your chromosomes▯ ▯ -Into a Phenotype—the characteristics you actually manifest▯ -Genes that are switched on govern the processes in the cells. ▯ -What determines which genes are active?▯ ▯ -Heredity: Some genes are self-activated.▯ ▯ -Epigenesis▯ -The environment governs some of when the genes are turn on and off▯ ▯ Epigenesis▯ -Which genes are switched on and switched off and when they are switched on and off. ▯ -are influenced by the state of the body and the demands on it and the resources available to it. ▯ -So, in the process of epigenesis, experience and transactions with the environment shape gene expression—the Phenotype. ▯ ▯ NOTE: Siblings have their own genes, but identical twins have identical genes, fraternal twins don’t have the same genes. ▯ ▯ Conception and Prenatal Development Sperm▯ -made in Testes▯ -Testes is formed during prenatal development▯ -Testicular cells (spermatogonia) form ▯ 3 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 -At puberty, Testes and Spermatogonia become active, produce Primary Spermatocytes (immature precursor of sperm). In first phase of Meiosis, cell nuclei divide, with chromosomes randomly paired, rather than duplicating the original Nucleus. ▯ -Primary Spermatocytes have two sets of 23 chromosomes. ▯ -In second phase of Meiosis, the nuclei divide again, creating two Secondary Spermatocytes, each with only 23 Chromosomes. These cells mature into sperm. ▯ -Both phases of meiosis happen in short time. ▯ -Sperm are created from early puberty throughout life. ▯ ▯ Ova ▯ -ova are produced in the Ovaries▯ -Ovaries develop prenatally▯ -Oogonia in ovaries produce Primary oocytes with two sets of 46 chromosomes during the prenatal period. ▯ -This first phase of Meiosis is suspended. ▯ -During puberty, Primary oocytes begin to mature, and in second phase of Meiosis, their nuclei and cytoplasm divide, resulting in two cells each with a full set of 46 Chromosomes. The Chromosomes are randomly paired, rather than being identical to the chromosomes of the Oogonia. The cell cytoplasm is not divided equally, resulting in a large cell, the Secondary Oocyte, and a smaller cell, a “polar body” ▯ -As the Secondary Oocyte matures (we call it an ovum), it begins the second phase of Meiosis, dividing its chromosomes again in two. Meiosis is again suspended. ▯ -If a sperm enters the cell (fertilization) the nucleus divides, and the cytoplasm is divided unequally again, producing another small polar body with 23 chromosomes, and leaving a large cell with 23 chromosomes. ▯ -The large cell’s chromosomes will combine with the sperm’s chromosomes to produce a zygote with 46 chromosomes. ▯ -The zygote will develop into an embryo. ▯ -The remaining polar body will disintegrate. ▯ ▯ 4 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Meiosis▯ -Results in new combinations of genes rather than identical combination of genes (which happens in Mitosis) ▯ -Produces sperm and ova (Gametes)▯ -Happens all at once in males, beginning in puberty & continuing into old age. ▯ -Happens in three phases in females, first prenatally, then after puberty, then during fertilization. ▯ ▯ Conception▯ -Merging of the 23 chromosomes from the sperm with 23 chromosomes of the ovum.▯ ▯ After fertilization, all the divisions that are taking place has no source of nutrients except what is included in the zygote itself. 5


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