New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 2, Lecture 2

by: Malissa Notetaker

Week 2, Lecture 2 PSY-B 344

Malissa Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Will be on Exam 1
Dr. Christine Czachowski
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Learning

Popular in Neuroscience

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Malissa Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-B 344 at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Dr. Christine Czachowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Learning in Neuroscience at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.

Similar to PSY-B 344 at IUPUI


Reviews for Week 2, Lecture 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/06/16
Psychology 344­ Learning  Lecture 2­ 8/29/16    ● Recap definition of Learning:  ○ “Learning is an enduring change in the mechanisms of behavior involving  specific stimuli and/or responses that results from prior experience with those  stimuli and responses.”  ■ “Mechanisms because you can’t always see the learning, not always  observable”  ■ Remember the distinction between learning vs. performance  ○ Shorter version of the definition­ Changes in behavior that results in experience    ● Basic Behavioral Processes  ○ Most everyday behavior is not deliberate, but rather ​put into motion by features of  the environment​ that operate outside of conscious awareness and guidance  ■ Ex: when time is 4:30, you know it’s time for class  ○ There is a ​limited role of consciousness​ in behavior; much of what takes place in  a normal day involves habitual responses that we spend little time thinking about  ■ Ex: steps in the shower­ not consciously thinking about each step we are  taking  ○ All of behavior is not purposeful  ○ Not thinking about every single thing we do, would take too much brainpower    ● Despite this (bullet point above):  ○ Early theories opposed the idea that we had behavioral processes that had  anything in common w/ animals  ○ Behavior was presumed to be result of deliberate intent or ​free will    ● History of the Study of Learning­ Philosophers around 1600’s:  ○ Rene Desc ​ artes   ■ Was a ​nativist​, believing that humans and animals were ​born with some  knowledge  ■ Cartes​ian dualism:  ● Part of human behavior is ​reflexive​ and controlled by external  stimuli and ​governed by rules  ○ Response to environment  ● Other part of behavior is governed by ​free will​ (and was ​not  predictable and ​not governed by rules  ● Involuntary Action​­ produced by a reflex arc: messages from the  sense organs go to the brain, then to the muscles.    ● Voluntary Action​­ initiated by the mind, with messages sent to the  brain and then the muscles  ○ Purposeful  ○ Unique to humans   ○ Believed that the pineal gland was the special region that  controls “free will”    ● Pineal Gland  ○ Thought it was where “free will” was controlled bc of  location in the brain  ○ Actually an endocrine gland that produces melatonin and  regulates sleep/wake cycles        ● History of the Study of Learning­ Philosophers around 1600’s (cont.):  ○ John Locke  ■ Unlike nativists, believed ​all information people had was acquired after  birth​; was an ​empiricist  ■ At birth, babies are a blank slate, called ​tabula rasa  ■ Slate fills up with the ​experiences ​ of a lifetime  ■ Empiricists believed that the mind is ​governed by associations (rules)   ○ Thomas H ​ ​obbes  ■ Accepted the distinction between voluntary and involuntary behavior, but  believed ALL human behaviors were ​rule­based​, reflexive, and  mechanistic  ■ Behavior is governed by ​h​edonism​­ the pursuit of pleasure and the  avoidance of pain  ● Resort Hedonism II­ nude beach  ■ Notion of hedonism remains influential today when seeking to understand  animal behavior and mechanistic human behaviors  ○ Empiricists: Rules of Association  1. Contiguity​­ things that occur close together in space/time are associated  with one another   a. This is still a fundamental rule of learning  b. “Contiguous 48 states”  c. Ex: bell & salvation   2. Similarity/Contrast​­ things are associated by similarity or extreme  differences  a. Little evidence for this idea  b. Ex: red car, red apple  ●  However, Empiricists didn’t test their ideas  ● Unlike the philosophers, ​psychologists​ like Ebbinghaus (1885) did attempt  to study the formation of associations in humans  ○ Invented ​nonsense syllables​­ 3­letter combinations to discover new  learning rules  ■ Ex: BAP, ROH, KUF  ○ Addressed questions of contiguity, practice, etc.   ■ Credited with the “forgetting function”    ● Ivan Pavlov (1800’s):  ○ Russian physiologist  ○ Advocate of ​nervism​­ that all important physiological systems are controlled by  the ​nervous system  ○ Advocated ​functional neurology    ● Charles Darwin  ○ Claimed a ​continuity between nonhuman to human animals​, argued that the mind  ○ Did not deny that humans had the capacity for the things like reason, wonder, and  ○ Beginning of ​comparative psychology​ as a science    ● General Process​ Approach to Studying Learning  ○ Focuses on ​similarities among different animals​ (i.e., the “general processes”)  ○ Seeks to find ​general rules​ that govern learning from sea cucumbers to humans  ○ Species use different stimuli (e.g., bats use echolocation), but that may ​use the    ● General Process​ View  ○ One can study behavior in a ​relatively small number of situations​ and hopefully  ○ Learning principles should be ​demonstrable in any species that is capable of    ● Why use animal models?  ○ Humans and animals behave differently, so why use animals  ​     ● Choice of Animal Species  ○ Rule of Thumb­​ the more ​basic​ the process under investigation, the more distant  can be the evolutionary relationship to humans  ■ Examples (simple to complex)­ nematodes, insects, snails, squid, rodents,  monkeys, etc.  ● Simple learning processes, like habituation, can be studied in the  sea slug (aplysia)  ● Cognitive function and disorders require more closely related  species, like the macaque monkey  ○ Ex: cooperation  ○ Most animals used today in psychological/neuroscience research today are mice  and rats    ● Why use animal models? (cont.)  ○ Working with animals has several advantages:  ■ Easier to ​control their history​, both environmentally and genetically  ■ Animals don’t have ​demand characteristics​­ the tendency to guess the  purpose of your experiment and modify their behavior based upon that  guess  ● Ex: humans may change an answer to sound more adventurous or  less irresponsible  ■ You may need to use procedures that would be ​ethically difficult​ in  humans  ● Ex: allowing self­administration of rewarding drugs like cocaine    ● Animal Protections  ○ One cannot gather reliable data from animals that are unhealthy or excessively  stressed, or uncomfortable with the apparatus  ■ Aversive stimulation (e.g., shock) is typically very mild  ● Many test with their hands first  ■ Deprivation (food or water) is mild compared to the wild  ■ All animal research is closely supervised by Federal legislation, and is  much more closely monitored than agriculture    ● Animal Alternatives  ○ Tissue Culture­ One can use this to study cellular processes that are potentially  involved in learning, but ​behavior​ requires use of whole animal  ○ Computer Simulation­ presumes that one already knows a great deal about the  target of the simulation  ○ Observation vs. Experimentation­ hard to make conclusions about causes of  learning    ● Observation vs. Experimentation  ○ Observation­ simply watch and carefully record behavior  ■ Ex: Jane Goodall and her chimpanzees  ■ Can learn a great deal and not overly modify the environment  ■ Observation has ​external validity​ (it is generalizable to other situations)  ■ Cannot make causal conclusions (assumptions)  ● Ex: just b/c someone eats doesn’t mean they were hungry  ○ Experimentation­ investigator changes one thing at a time  ■ Independent variable​­ thing you change  ● Under the right conditions, one can make conclusions that the  independent variable c ​ aused ​ behavior to change  ○ BUT only if the independent variable was the only thing  that was changed  ○ In other words, there is a high i ​ nternal validity  ● Sometimes it’s harder to apply these lessons to the real world, so  there ​can be less external validity    ● The Study of Learning Requires Experimentation  ○ The study of learning­ “experimental psychology”  ○ One has to exclude other potential causes of behavioral change to conclude that a  change is ​caused​ by learning  ○ This is hard to do in the field, using observation alone, because you can’t rule out  other causes of behavioral change    ● Basic Learning Experiments:  ○ If using two groups, they should be identical, except for the training/treatment of  interest  ○ If using one group, there should be some certainty that behavior is stable in the  absence of training/treatment 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.