Chemistry 111 Notes 2.1-2.4
Chemistry 111 Notes 2.1-2.4 CHEM 111 - 02
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makayla Richardson on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 - 02 at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Antonio Lara in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry and Biochemistry at New Mexico State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chemistry 111 Notes 2.12.4 1) Plum Pudding Model Originally introduced by J.J. Thompson He thought that the atom looked like plum pudding with raisins in it. Believing that the atom looked like a positively charged sphere with a bunch of electrons floating around. Later disproved. 2) Nuclear Model Earnest Rutherford conducted the Gold Foil Experiment. He found that the ‘Plum Pudding’ Model was very inaccurate. He created the basis of the Nuclear Model. Rutherford also discovered protons and neutrons, combined they are the nucleons. 3) Subatomic Particles (I realize that Lara was a bit confusing when discussing the two tables of subatomic particles, so I kept it as simple as possible.) Mass (kg) Mass (amu*) Relative Charge (C) Charge Protons 1.67262x10^27 1.00727 ~1 +1 +1.60218x10^19 Neutrons 1.67493x10^27 1.00866 ~1 0 0 Electrons 0.00091x10^27 0.00055 ~0 1 1.60218x10^19 *Atomic Mass Unit Keep in mind that Mass and Charge are two different things, that’s why the scientific notations are different. Mass is weight and charge is how the protons and electrons are reactant to each other. Remember that the electron adds more mass to the neutron, which is why the neutron is partially larger than the proton. 4) Nucleons, Electrons, and Isotopes Atomic Number (Z): number of protons in an atom. Mass Number (A): total of the nucleons Isotope: Atoms in an element that contain the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. 20 22 Ex: Ne 10p, 10n, 10e : Ne 10p, 12n, 10e 10 10 Nuclide: atoms of an element with particular neutron numbers. To remain the same element, the number of protons must remain the same. When conditions change for an element, you get Ions . Anion (negative): more electrons than protons Cations (positive): more protons than electrons 16 2 23 +1 Ex: O 8p, 8n, 10e= Anion : Na=Cation 8 11 5) Isotopic Abundance Important when determining the average atomic mass. 6) Periodic Table of Elements *The best thing you can do for yourself right now is print out a blank table, which I have added, and color it in for yourself according to the type of elements. Groups: columns on the vertical plane, there are 8 groups, not counting the transition metals. There are 18 groups total. Periods: rows on the horizontal plane, there are 7 periods. The elements are arranged in specific groups based on how similarly they react to other substances. The elements are arranges in increasing order of atomic mass (amu) A) Types of Elements Nonmetals Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Metals Lanthanides Actinides Noble Gases Metalloids Halogens Other Metals Unknown B) Elements you need to know now! (Names and Symbols) HHydrogen TiTitanium He Helium VVanadium Li Lithium CrChromium BeBeryllium MnManganese BBoron FeIron C Carbon CoCobalt N Nitrogen NiNickle O Oxygen CuCopper F Florine Zn Zinc NeNeon Ga Gallium NaSodium Ge Germanium Mg Magnesium As Arsenic Al Aluminum Se Selenium Si Silicon Br Bromine P Phosphorus Kr Krypton S Sulfur ScScandium ClChlorine Ar Argon (It’s not hard to memorize them, it just takes time) K Potassium CaCalcium 7) Magnetic Currents, Charges, and Fields ++ (positive/ positive) repel each other (negative/ negative) repel each other + (positive/ negative) attract each other Charges: Objects with either more protons or more electrons Charged particles have their own magnetic field in order to move. Converse: when a=b and b=a Converse is used when calculating magnetic fields and electron movement.
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