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Chemistry 111 Notes 2.1-2.4

by: Makayla Richardson

Chemistry 111 Notes 2.1-2.4 CHEM 111 - 02

Makayla Richardson
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These are notes for Chapter 2, Sections 1-4. They go over the periodic table, charges, protons, neutrons, electrons, ions, and some history of the early chemists. Also attached inside is a blank pe...
General Chemistry I
Dr. Antonio Lara
Class Notes
General Chemistry




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makayla Richardson on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 - 02 at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Antonio Lara in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry and Biochemistry at New Mexico State University.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chemistry 111 Notes 2.1­2.4 1) Plum Pudding Model  Originally introduced by J.J. Thompson  He thought that the atom looked like plum pudding with raisins in it. Believing that the atom  looked like a positively charged sphere with a bunch of electrons floating around.   Later disproved.  2) Nuclear Model   Earnest Rutherford conducted the Gold Foil Experiment.  He found that the ‘Plum Pudding’ Model was very inaccurate.  He created the basis of the Nuclear Model.   Rutherford also discovered protons and neutrons, combined they are the nucleons. 3) Subatomic Particles (I realize that Lara was a bit confusing when discussing the two tables of subatomic particles, so I kept it as simple as possible.) Mass (kg) Mass (amu*) Relative  Charge (C) Charge Protons 1.67262x10^­27 1.00727 ~1 +1 +1.60218x10^­19 Neutrons 1.67493x10^­27 1.00866 ~1 0 0 Electrons 0.00091x10^­27 0.00055 ~0 ­1 ­1.60218x10^­19   *Atomic Mass Unit ­Keep in mind that Mass and Charge are two different things, that’s why the scientific notations are  different. Mass is weight and charge is how the protons and electrons are reactant to each other.  ­Remember that the electron adds more mass to the neutron, which is why the neutron is partially larger  than the proton.  4) Nucleons, Electrons, and Isotopes  Atomic Number (Z): number of protons in an atom.   Mass Number (A): total of the nucleons   Isotope: Atoms in an element that contain the same number of protons, but a different number of  neutrons. 20 22 ­Ex: Ne 10p, 10n, 10e :   Ne 10p, 12n, 10e 10 10  Nuclide: atoms of an element with particular neutron numbers.  To remain the same element, the number of protons must remain the same.  When conditions change for an element, you get  Ions . ­Anion (negative): more electrons than protons ­Cations (positive): more protons than electrons        16   ­2                         23     +1 ­Ex: O 8p, 8n, 10e= Anion : Na=Cation 8                11 5) Isotopic Abundance  Important when determining the average atomic mass. 6) Periodic Table of Elements  *The best thing you can do for yourself right now is print out a blank table, which I have added, and  color it in for yourself according to the type of elements.   Groups: columns on the vertical plane, there are 8 groups, not counting the transition metals.  There are 18 groups total.   Periods: rows on the horizontal plane, there are 7 periods.  The elements are arranged in specific groups based on how similarly they react to other  substances.  The elements are arranges in increasing order of atomic mass (amu) A) Types of Elements   Nonmetals  Alkali Metals  Alkaline Earth Metals   Transition Metals  Lanthanides   Actinides   Noble Gases  Metalloids   Halogens   Other Metals  Unknown B) Elements you need to know now! (Names and Symbols)  H­Hydrogen Ti­Titanium  He­ Helium V­Vanadium  Li­ Lithium  Cr­Chromium Be­Beryllium  Mn­Manganese  B­Boron  Fe­Iron C­ Carbon  Co­Cobalt N­ Nitrogen Ni­Nickle O­ Oxygen  Cu­Copper  F­ Florine  Zn­ Zinc Ne­Neon Ga­ Gallium Na­Sodium Ge­ Germanium Mg­ Magnesium As­ Arsenic  Al­ Aluminum  Se­ Selenium  Si­ Silicon Br­ Bromine  P­ Phosphorus  Kr­ Krypton  S­ Sulfur  Sc­Scandium  Cl­Chlorine  Ar­ Argon (It’s not hard to memorize them, it just takes time) K­ Potassium Ca­Calcium 7) Magnetic Currents, Charges, and Fields  ++ (positive/ positive) repel each other  ­­ (negative/ negative) repel each other  +­ (positive/ negative) attract each other   Charges: Objects with either more protons or more electrons ­Charged particles have their own magnetic field in order to move.  Converse: when a=b and b=a ­Converse is used when calculating magnetic fields and electron movement. 


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