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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Kami Mabe

Chapter 2 Notes Bio 2110k

Kami Mabe
GPA 3.54

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About this Document

These notes cover the basics of Chapter 2
Human anatomy & physiology
Class Notes
anatomy, Lipids, Proteins, Water, Carbohydrates
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kami Mabe on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2110k at Georgia State University taught by Borek in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human anatomy & physiology in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
 Matter  Has three forms  Solid  Liquid  Gas  Composed of Atoms  The smallest particle that makes up the chemical properties of elements  Contains 3 subatomic particles  Protons  Positive charge  Weighs 1 amu  Electrons  Negative charge  Equal to proton number  Neutrons  Neutral charge  Weighs 1 amu  Atomic mass-atomic nu,ber  Elements  Periodic Table organizes them  Chemical Symbol  Different one for all elements  Usually first letter  Atomic Number  Number of protons  Arranged by atomic number  Atomic Mass  Both protons and neutrons  Electrons on outer shell determines the columns in which elements are placed  Each column has one more electron than the previous one  Octect Rule  When elements try to gain, share, or lose electrons to satisfy the outer shells with eight electrons  Isotopes  Different atoms of the same element  Same amount of electrons and protons  Neutron numbers are different  Same chemical properties  Radioisotopes  Contain excess neutrons  High energy radiation  Physical Half-Life  Time for half of the radioisotope to become stable  Body exposed to radioisotopes during medical procedures  Locate nodules  Traces products of metabolic reaction  Biological Half-Life  Time for half the radioactive material from test to disappear  Chemical Compound  Associations between two or more elements that combine in a fixed ratio  Ionic Compounds  Ionic structures that hold together by a lattice of ionic bonds  Ions  Atoms with positive or negative charge  Loss or gain of electrons is how they are produced  Very common in the body, and they have physiological functions  Cations  Positively charged ions  Atoms with 1, 2, or 3 electrons  Left side of periodic table  Anions  Negatively charged ions  Atoms with 5, 6, or 7 electrons  Right side of periodic table  Polyatomic Ions  Anions that have more than one atom  Ionic Bonds  When anions and cations bond together  Form salts  Molecules  Molecular Formula  Chemical constituents and ratios in a molecule  Structural Formula  Number and types of atoms  Arrangement within molecule  Different isomers  Isomer: Molecules that contain the same number and kind of elements, but they arranged differently  Covalent Bonds  When atoms share electrons  Mostly 2 or more different elements  Creates a Covalently bonded molecule  Most common elements in human body  Oxygen  Needs 2 electrons to fulfill octet rule  Carbon  Forms 4 bonds  Hydrogen  Simplest covalent bond is between 2 hydrogens  Nitrogen  Forms 3 bonds  Single, Double, and Triple covalent bond  Nonpolar Covalent Bond  Share electrons equally  Polar Covalent Bond  Atoms that contain different electronegativity share electrons unequally  Intermolecular Attractions  Chemical attractions between molecules that are weak  Maintains shape of complex molecules  DNA and Protein  Hydrogen Bond  Polar molecules  Partially positive hydrogen and partially negative molecule  Weak individually, but strong when collective  How water molecules behave  Van Der Walls  Nonpolar molecules  Unevenly distributed of an adjacent atom and nonpolar molecule  Individually Weak  Hydrophobic Interactions  Nonpolar molecule in polar substance  Intramolecular attractions, if between parts of a large molecule  Water  2/3 of human body  Polar  1 oxygen molecule and 2 hydrogen molecules  Able to form 4 hydrogen bonds with adjacent molecules  Phases  Gas  Liquid  Solid  Purpose  Transports  Substances dissolved in water move in the body  Lubricates  Friction decreases between body structures  Cushions  Absorbs force of body movement  Excretes Waste  Substances are dissolved and removed  Cohesion  Attraction between water molecules  Hydrogen Bonding  Surface Tension  Inward pulling of cohesive forces  Occurs on surface of water  Moist sacs of air in lungs that may collapse  Surfactant: mixture of lipids and proteins help prevent these sacs  Adhesion  Attraction between water and any other substance  Temperature  Measure of kinetic energy in a substance  Specific Heat  Energy required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of substance by 1 degree Celsius  Heat of Vaporization  Heat required for the release of molecules from liquid phase straight into the gaseous phase for 1 gram of substance  Sweating cools the body  Solvent of the body  Solutes  Substances that dissolve in water  Universal Solvent is Water  Most substances dissolve in it  Some polar molecules and other charged substances dissolve in water  Hydrophilic= Water loving  Hydration shell  When water surrounds substances  Nonelectrolytes do not conduct currents  Some dissolve and separate  Electrolytes conduct currents  Nonpolar Molecules do not dissolve  Hydrophobic= water fearing  Cohesive water molecules can force out nonpolar molecules  Called hydrophobic exclusion  Hydrophobic substances are transported within blood by carrier proteins  Water can dissociate to form ions  Oxygen and hydrogen bond breaks apart  OH termed Hydroxide Ion  Hydrogen transferred to a second water molecule  Hydronium ion=H3O+  Mixtures  Two or more substances combined  Not changed chemically  Separated by physical means  Three Categories of Water Mixtures  Suspension  Water mixed with material larger than 100 nanometers  Remained mixed only when in motion  Scatters light  Colloid  Protein from 1-100 nanometers in size  Mixed even when not in motion  Scatters light  Solution  Homogeneous mixture of material smaller than 1 nanometer  Mixed when not in motion  Doesn’t scatter light  Emulsion: water and nonpolar liquid  Don’t mix unless shaken  Concentration  Amount of solute dissolved in a solution  Expressions  Mass/volume  Mass/volume percent  Molarity  Moles/liter  Changes when the temperature changes  Molality  Moles/Kg  Does not change with temperature  More accurate than molarity  Osmoles  Number of particles in a solution  Determines if a substance dissolves, or dissolves then dissociates  Osmolarity  Particles in a 1 L solution  Easy to measure  Osmolality  Particles in 1 Kg water  More accurate  Moles  6.022X10^23  Mass in grams equal to atomic mass of element or molar mass of a compound  Add masses of all atoms in the compound  Acids and Bases  Acids produces H+ and an anion when it is dissociated in water  Proton donor  H+ concentration is increased  Stronger acids have more dissociation of H+  Weak acids have less dissociation of H+  When a base is added to a solution, it accepts H+  Proton acceptor  Decreases concentration of H+  Stronger bases absorbs more H+  Weaker bases absorbs less H+  pH  Measure of H+ in a solution  Between 0 and 14  pH of water is 7  Equal concentration of H+ and OH-  Neutral  pH reading of 7  H+ has greater concentration than OH-  Acidic  pH is less than 7  OH- has a greater concentration than H+  Basic  pH is greater than 7  Neutralization  Acid or base is returned to neutral  Bases neutralized by adding acid  Acids neutralized by adding base  Buffers  Prevent pH changes if excess base or acid is added during neutralization  Accept H+ from excess acid  Donate H+ to base  Biological Macromolecules  Organic Molecules  Contain Carbon  Component of living organism  Inorganic Molecules  Molecules that don’t contain carbon  Chemical Composition  Carbon skeletons with 2 or more with specific characteristics  Functional Groups  Most are polar and can hydrogen bond  Some can act like acids and bases  Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen  Hydrocarbons: carbon and hydrogen  Nonpolar and hydrophobic  Polymers  Molecules with repeating subunits (monomers)  Identical or similar in structure  Carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins  Dehydration Synthesis  Synthesis of biomolecules  1 subunit loses H  Another loses OH  New covalent bond and water  Hydrolysis  Breakdown of biomolecules  H added to subunit  OH added to another subunit  Lipids  Fatty, water-insoluble  Stored nutrients, cellular membrane components, and hormones  Gycolipids  Lipid molecule with a carbohydrate  Plasma membrane  Cellular bonding  Fat-Soluble vitamins  A  E  K  4 classes  Triglycerides  Common form of lipid in living things  Long-term energy storage in adipose tissue  Structural support, cushioning, and insulation  Glycerol and 3 fatty acids  Formed during dehydration synthesis  Fatty acids  Vary in number of double bonds  Saturated: no double bonds  Most animal fats  Solid at room temp  Unsaturated: only have 1  Vegetable fats  Liquid at room temp  Hydrogenation: unsaturated fats are converted to saturated fats  Partial Hydrogenation can lead to trans fat  Polyunsaturated: have more than 2  Adipose Tissue  When energy is excess, they form triglyceride  Lipogenesis  When energy is needed, they break down triglycerides  Lipolysis  Phospholipids  Amphipathic molecules form cell membranes  Similar structure to triglyceride  Glycerol with polar phosphate group with another organic griup  Organic group substitutes the fatty acid  Hydrophilic head  Glycerol, phosphate, and organic group are polar  Hydrophobic Head  Fatty acid group is nonpolar  Steroids  Ringed structures with hormones  Hydrocarbons in the ringed structure  Differ in side groups  Eicosanoids  20-carbon fatty acid  Synthesized from arachidonic acid  Functions in the inflammatory response, nervous system, and all the body systems  4 classes  Prostaglandins  Prostacyclin  Thromboxane  Leukotrienes  Carbohydrates  H and OH attached to every carbon  Monosaccharide  Simple monomers  Glucose  6 carbons  Primary nutrient supplier of energy to cells  Concentration is maintained  Glycogenolysis  Glucose is broken down from glycogen  Hexose  Contains 6 carbons  Galactose and fructose  Pentose sugars  Contains 5 carbons  Ribose and deoxyribose  C6H12O6  Disaccharides  2 monosaccharides  2 sugars bonded together  Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose  Polysaccharides  Many monosaccharides  Glycogen in animals  Starch and Cellulose in plants  Glycogenesis  Glucose is bound into glycogen  Liver and skeletal muscle store excess glucose  Nucleic Acids  Store and transfer genetic information  Deoxyribose and Ribose  Both classes are polymers of nucleotide monomers  Linked through phosphodiester bonds  Deoxyribose  Double stranded nucleic acid  Chromosomes in nucleus and in mitochondria  Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, and 1 of the 4 bases  Adenine, Guanine, cytosine, or thymine  Hydrogen bonds hold double bonds together  Form between complementary bases  A and T, C and G  Ribose  Single stranded nucleic acid  Nucleus and cytoplasm  Ribose sugar, phosphate, and one of four bases  Adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil  Nucleotide Monomer  3 components  Sugar  5 carbon pentose  Phosphate Group  Attached at carbon 5  Nitrogenous Group  Attached at carbon 1  Single or double ring structure  5 types of Bases  Pyrimidines: single ring bases  Cytosine  Uracil  Thymine  Purines: Double ring bases  Adenine  Guanine  Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)  Nucleotide composed of nitrogenous bases adenine, ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups  Covalent bonds between last 2 phosphate groups  When broken, they release energy  Central molecule in chemical energy transfer  Proteins  Serve as Catalyst  Act in defense  Aid in transport  Contribute to structural support  Cause movement  Preform regulation  Provide storage  Composed of one or more monomers  Monomers are amino acids  20 total in living organisms  Amine and carboxylic acid functional group  Carbon bonded to hydrogen and different side chain (R group)  Amino acids linked by peptide bonds  H lost from amine group  OH lost from carboxylic acid  Free amine group= N-terminal group  Free carboxyl group= C-terminal end


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