BIO 203 Physiology Notes: Week One, Overview and DIffusion
BIO 203 Physiology Notes: Week One, Overview and DIffusion BIO 203LEC
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Tufekcic on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 203LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Loretz, C A in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see General Physiology Lec in Biology at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Physiology Intro Comparative physiology: comparing and contrasting systems and responses between species or within one species in different conditions Model Organisms -rapid evolution -many differences -known evolutionary history -convergence -good pedigree: rapid development, small adult size, easy availability Homeostasis variable detected sensor informs integratory sends instructions to effector brings about change -positive and negative feedback -open loop -reset system -level of organization/scale Acclimation: individual adjustment Adaptation: generational adjustment Multicellularity -evolved independently many times -larger size = isolation from outside world, division of labor -evolved accidentally = daughter cells didn’t separate -selected for larger and larger sizes -slime molds can switch from single amoebae to a dispersive fruiting body when food is scarce Pressures: aquatic- adherence to substrate, prevents being eaten, faster movement terrestrial: more effective spore/germ cell dispersal, better feeding Complexities and challenges: large size long diffusion distance vascular system subdivision of functions tissues and organs so many spaces! Intra and extracellular has to integrate all the functions effectively barriers! Epithelia: cells that cover surfaces and spaces that separate the organism from the interior and exterior cavities -joined by tight junctions “tight” or “leaky” -sheets or tubules -lipid bilayer restricts movements of hydrophilic molecules -hydrophobic are permeable across the bilayer -transport proteins and channels help hydrophilic molecules Simple diffusion probability a molecule will diffuse: J = kC J= flux k=temperature constant C= concentration J = kΔC net passive diffusion, active transport w/ channels/proteins, osmosis Osmotic Terms osmotic pressure: hyperosmotic, isosmotic, hypoosmotic = needs reference point tonicity: hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic = used in context of volume change hydrostatic pressure: bulk flow, turgor Influences on rate of diffusion: concentration ( C) inc, permeability (P) inc, surface area (A) inc, molecular weight (MW) dec, distance (X) dec net ra(Q = ΔC∗P∗A MW∗ΔX P =diffusioncoeffici(D) Q= ΔC∗P∗A √MW ΔX Carrier mediated transport: -specificity (in what they transport) -saturation -competition two forms: facilitated diffusion = no energy required active transport = energy required, primary or secondary -uniporter: moves one thing in one direction -symporter: moves two things in the same direction coupled -antiporter: moves 2 things in 2 directions Primary: the Na/K pump moves Na, using ATP to establish a concentration of Na Secondary: Na moving with concentration gradient created, drives transport of glucose against its concentration gradient
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