Biology 1012 Life: The Natural World Week 3, Chapter 3 Notes
Biology 1012 Life: The Natural World Week 3, Chapter 3 Notes Biol 1012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Lovegren on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1012 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Barton L Bergquist in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Life: The Natural World in Biology at University of Northern Iowa.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 3 Climate Section 3.1 Earth Intercepts Solar Radiation The Steps Solar radiation (energy emitted) travels through space and reaches Earth’s atmosphere o The energy emitted depends on the object’s temperature, so the hotter the object, the more energy emitted and the shorter the wavelength (shortwave radiation) o The sun would give off shortwave radiation, while the Earth’s surface is much cooler, so it gives off longwave radiation The solar radiation heats the land and oceans, which in turn emit longwave radiation back to the atmosphere The atmosphere can only allow a small part of this energy to pass through into space In turn, much of this energy is radiated back to Earth, which produces the greenhouse effect 3.2 Intercepted Solar Radiation Varies Seasonally Amount of solar radiation taken in at any point on Earth’s surface varies with latitude o At higher latitudes, radiation hits at a steeper angle, which spreads sunlight out over a larger area o Radiation that penetrates the atmosphere at a steep angle must travel through a deeper layer of air, therefore the area is not as warm Areas near equator receive greatest amount of radiation (are warmer), while higher latitudes are colder (the poles) Also, due to the Earth being tilted on its axis, parts of Earth receive seasonal differences in solar radiation o This is how some parts of the Earth are cold when at the same time in a different place, there are places that are hot o Also plays into how the seasons change 3.3 Air Temperature Decreases with Altitude As you climb upward, the mass of air above us decreases, pressure declines as well o The atmosphere gets thinner the higher you go Environmental lapse rate: rate at which temperature decreases with altitude Since heat rises, as a volume of air rises, the decreasing pressure causes it to expand and cool, which is why the top of a mountain can have snow even in a warm environment Adiabatic cooling: decrease in air temperature through expansion, not through heat loss in the surrounding atmosphere Adiabatic lapse rate: rate of temperature change with elevation 3.4 Air Masses Circulate Globally The spin of Earth on its axis deflects air and water currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Eastern Hemisphere (the Coriolis Effect) Three cells of global air flow occur in each hemisphere o Hadley cell o Polar cell o Ferrel cell 3.5 Solar Energy, Wind, and Earth’s Rotation Create Ocean Currents The global pattern of winds and the Coriolis Effect cause ocean current patterns Each ocean is dominated by 2 great circular water motions (gyres) These gyres move clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere 3.6 Temperature Influences the Moisture Content of Air Latent heat: the amount of energy released or absorbed during a change of state When going from a more ordered state to a less ordered state, energy is absorbed When going from a less ordered to a more ordered state, energy is released Evaporation: when water transforms from a liquid into a gaseous state Condensation: water vapor transforms into a liquid state Vapor pressure: amount of pressure water vapor exerts independent of the pressure of dry air Saturation vapor pressure: maximum amount of moisture the air can hold at any given temperature Relative humidity: amount of water in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount the air could hold at a given temperature Dew point temperature: temperature at which saturation vapor pressure is achieved 3.7 Precipitation Has a Distinctive Global Pattern Wind, temperature, and ocean currents make global precipitation patterns Intertropical Convergence Zone: narrow region near the Equator where the trade winds meet, high precipitation 3.8 Topography Influences Regional and Local Patterns of Precipitation As an air mass reaches a mountain, it becomes saturated with water vapor and releases much of the moisture on the windward side of the mountain This is rain shadow when a windward side of a mountain supports more vegetation than the leeward side of the mountain o On the leeward side of a mountain, dry, desertlike conditions can exist 3.9 Irregular Variations in Climate Occur at the Regional Scale Irregular variations in the trade winds contribute to periods of unusually warmer waters off cost of western South America This is referred to as the El NinoSouthern Oscillation, a global even from largescale interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean La Nina when cold water is more intense than usual, cools the surface of the eastern Pacific 3.10 Most Organisms Live in Microclimates The actual climatic conditions that organisms live in varies a lot within one climate Microclimates: local variations which define the conditions organisms live in These microclimates reflect topography (physical features of the land), vegetative cover, as well as exposure to solar radiation Angles of solar radiation cause differences between northfacing and southfacing slopes, whether on mountains, sand dunes, etc. o Southfacing sides are always warmer and drier than northfacing sides, which are cooler and have more moisture
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