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Week 2 Intro to Physical Geology Lecture Notes 9/7/16

by: Henderson Notetaker

Week 2 Intro to Physical Geology Lecture Notes 9/7/16 GEO 101N - 02

Marketplace > University of Montana > GEO 101N - 02 > Week 2 Intro to Physical Geology Lecture Notes 9 7 16
Henderson Notetaker
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These notes are from the lecture and slides from Wednesday the 7th of September each topic has information from the slides, lecture, and reference pages for the book. topics covered include:forma...
Intro to Physical Geology
James W. Sears (P)
Class Notes
Geology, Physical, Science, moon, Ocean and Atmosphere




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Henderson Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101N - 02 at University of Montana taught by James W. Sears (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Introduction to Physical Geology (GEO 101N­02) Professor: Dr. Jim Sears Elite Notetaker: Cat Henderson Lecture Notes Wednesday 9/7 ***Disclaimer: the following content is derived from notes I have taken from the required text or from my understanding of the  in class lecture. The notes and/study guides provided are to the best of my ability correct however they are NOT supervised by  the professor nor can I guarantee the absence of all mistakes.  Please understand that the following is my own notes (not my  original findings) from that of the sited material. These notes comply with the University of Montana Academic Dishonesty codes and policies and will not provide answers or cheat sheets for assignments or exams. Thank you for reading and understanding  this. *** Formation of the Moon Reference: (ch1 slide 30, pg23 sec1.5 Ess. Of Geo)  4.53 GA a mars sized protoplanet collides with earth o Originally it was thought that the moon was captured by earth’s gravity but the  angular momentum of the earth moon system would make that impossible  The planet and a part of earths mantel are disintegrated  The left over debris from the collision begins to rotate around the earth and eventually  collects to form the moon o Unlike the earth the moon does not have an iron core nor any water o The bulk composition of the moon (majority of the elemental materials that make  up the moon) is unlike any other planet in our solar system, it is most similar to  the earths mantel lending to the idea that the moon was formed in a collision The Atmosphere and Oceans Reference: (ch1 slide 31, pg28 sec1.6 Ess. Of Geo)  The atmosphere develops from volcanic gases o Atmosphere produced from volcanic gases however earth’s surface two hot to  allow accumulation so the earth was stuck in a cycle of evaporation – rain –  immediate evaporation. o Earth had to be big enough to rap the carbon and water vapor molecules  When earth becomes cool enough: o Moisture condenses and accumulates o The oceans come into existence o No other planet in our system contains liquid water The Earth System Reference: (ch1 slide 32, pg32 sec1.6 Ess. Of Geo)  Orbiting around Earth, space visitors would notice: o Atmosphere – the gaseous envelope. o Hydrosphere – the blue liquid water. o Biosphere – the wealth of life. o Lithosphere – the solid earth.  Interaction of these components comprises the Earth System.   Heath from radioactive decay fuels internal Processes. o Heat is trying to escape the core eversince it was formed 4.6 GA. However, the  mantel and crust act as insulators.  o All this energy drives tectonic plates, volcanos, induction zones, earthquakes etc.  o The radioactive decay also adds energy to this process   Sunlight powers atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. o These the surface processes are driven by sunlight o Being close to the sun means:  Earths water stays in a liquid form (as opposed to solid ice)  Effects weather o Solar radiation drives circulation of the oceans:  Water close to the equator (closer to the sun) is warm  Water closer to the poles is cold (farther from sun  The water tries to equalize and mix creating currents in oceans all over the world o Similar to the oceans sunlight circulates our atmosphere with its heat Magnetic Field Reference: (ch1 slide 33­36, pg26 sec1.6 Ess. Of Geo)  Space visitors would notice Earth’s magnetic field o Think of a fridge magnet   Earth’s magnetic field is like a giant dipole bar magnet o The field has north and south ends o The field grows weaker with distance o The magnetic force is directional:  It flows from S pole to N pole along the bar magnet.  (figure 1. Ess. Of Geo)  It flows from N to S along the field lines outside the bar  The N pole of the bar is near Earth’s geographic S pole o A compass needle aligns with the field lines o The N compass arrow points to the bar magnet S pole.  Opposites attract. Magnetic field cont.  Magnetic field lines: o Extend into space o Weaken with distance o Form a shield around the Earth (magnetosphere)  The solar wind distorts the magnetosphere o Shaped like a tear drop  (figure 1. Ess. Of Geo) o Deflects most of the solar wind, protecting earth  The strong magnetic field of the Van Allen belts (the inner magnetic field around the  earth) intercepts dangerous cosmic radiation  The magnetic field is revealed to the naked eye by spectacular aurorae o Some charged particles make it past the Van Allen belts. o These are channeled along magnetic fields lines o They cause atmospheric gases in polar regions to glow  Northern lights: aurora boralis  Southern lights: aurora australis  Occasionally throughout history the earth has experienced polar flips  o during which the polarity of the earth reverses. o While this is happening the earth is more vulnerable to radiation and solar winds  from the sun, causing all sorts of problems including mutation in DNA o We can find evidence of these flips in rocks as they show magnetic field  orientation The Atmosphere Reference: (ch1 slide 37­39, pg28 sec1.6 Ess. Of Geo)  Our atmosphere is mostly nitrogen (N ) a2d oxygen (O ). 2 o 78.08% nitrogen – very little effect on humans o 20.95% oxygen – we depend on this o .97% other  The remaining gases (totaling less the 1%) include: o Argon (0.93%), carbon dioxide (0.0018%) o Other, less common gases (helium, methane, krypton).  The atmosphere thins away from earth  Atmospheric layers have distinct characteristics o Pressure, temperature, density, moisture composition  The atmosphere is denser closer to earth  Sea­level atmospheric pressure o 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) o 1.01 bar The Atmosphere cont.  With increasing elevation o Pressure decreases o Density decreases o Oxygen content decreases  Atmospheric layers are separated by pauses o Troposphere (0­11 km):  Wind and clouds  Weather is confined to this layer  Temperature decreases upward o Stratosphere (12­47 km) o Mesosphere (47­82 km) o Thermosphere (82 km +)  Outermost layer o 99.9% of the atmosphere likes below 100 km elevation. Earth’s Surface  Reference: (ch1 slide 40, pg29 sec1.6 Ess. Of Geo)  Land (30%) and water (70%) are the most prominent surface features.  (figure  Ess. Of Geo) o Topography (land) defines plains, mountain, and valleys. o Bathymetry (sea­floor variations) defines mid­ocean ridges, abysmal plains, and  deep ocean trenches.  What is Earth Made of? Reference: (ch1 slide 41, pg31 sec1.6 Ess. Of Geo)  91.2% of earth’s mass comprises just four elements: o Iron (Fe) – 32.1% o Oxygen (O) – 30.1% o Silicon (Si) – 15.1% o Magnesium (Mg) – 13.9%  The remaining 8.8% of Earth’s mass consists of the remaining 88 elements Earth Materials Reference: (ch1 slide 42, pg31 sec1.6 Ess. Of Geo)  Elements combine in a variety of earth materials. o Organic chemicals – carbon­containing compounds  Most are residue from once living creatures  These include wood, peat, lignite, coal, and oil. o Minerals – naturally­occurring crystalline solids  Crystal – a single coherent mineral with geometric faces  Grain – an irregularly shaped fragment of a larger crystal  Minerals comprise rocks and, therefore, most of the earth o Glasses – noncrystalline solids  Glasses form by rapid cooling – too fast for crystal growth  Ex. obsidian o Rocks – aggregates of minerals, grains, and/or glass  Igneous – cooled from a liquid (melt)  Sedimentary – debris cemented from preexisting rock.  Ex. Sea shells  Metamorphic – rock altered by pressure and temperature o Rocks may be made of a single mineral


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