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Week 1 Lecture Notes

by: Mackenzie Thompson

Week 1 Lecture Notes History 105

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > History > History 105 > Week 1 Lecture Notes
Mackenzie Thompson
Texas A&M
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First week of notes
History of the U.S.
Dr. Donald Willett
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Thompson on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 105 at Texas A&M University taught by Dr. Donald Willett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see History of the U.S. in History at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
8/31/16 Quest for Independence 1. Internal makeup of colonies 2. External forces 3. Step-by-step process leading up to Revolution *1763 – French/Indian War ends England wins, France thrown out of US England now possesses 31 colonies around the world, “The sun never sets on the British empire” *1776 – British empire falls apart What happened in 13 years to make the greatest empire in history fall apart? Organization is key! Part 1  Internal Makeup of Colonies British empire developed 4 types of colonies: 1. Corporate Colony  Rich in natural resources, miserable to live  Profit-oriented colony  Go to work for a few years, make/save lots of money, settle somewhere livable  EX: Alaska, Arctic Circle, etc. 2. Proprietary Colony  governed by family  Colony given to a family by the King  Debt-repayment by King i. Freedom of Religion/religious persecution  EX: Maryland (Lord Baltimore helped the King who wasn’t able to repay the debt, but instead offered a piece of land in the New World); Pennsylvania (William Penn loaned the King money who wasn’t able to repay him, so instead he gave Penn land in the New World)  Internal affairs (taxes)  handled by the family  External affairs (Great Britain goes to war)  expected to go fight for your country 3. Charter Colony (Royal Colonies)  self- governed by Religious Leaders  Given to prevent religious civil wars  Remain loyal to England  Rhode Island and Connecticut Royal Governor i. Ruled by Royal Governor Governor’s Council ii. Owned by the King Friendl iii. Key to Revolution!!! y iv. 3 sided governmental structure 1. Royal Governor:  Loyal to king  Hard worker Assembly  Not too ambitious  Enough power to do job, but powers are limited appropriately: i. Appoint all judges, justice of the peace, and minor officials ii. Grant free tracks of land (important because land = wealth!! Loyal to the king = given land = rich; disloyal to the king = refused land = poor) iii. Commander in Chief of local militia (never powerful enough to start revolution) 2. Governor’s Council  Made up of 12 men  Appointed by Royal Governor  Fulfilled 3 functions: i. Chief advisor to England (Cabinet) ii. Served as upper house of colonial legislatures (Senate) Freeman  Full citizen 1. Finalizes financial matters -White iii. Served as highest court of appeal -Male in local judiciary (Supreme Court) -21+ 3. Assembly (House of Representatives) -Owns wealth/land  Elected amongst freeman of colony -Can vote and be  Strong affinity for democracy elected 9/2/2016 Part 2: Outside Influence Pressuring the British Empire *1500’s (16 century) – Rivals are the Spaniards and Dutch New rival = French First French settlement:  Quebec, 1608 o 1 year after first English settlement in Jamestown o Known as “New France” o Founded by Samuel de Champlain  Wrote reports urging French monarchy to claim Quebec  Monarchs ignored Louis XIV  “Sun King”  Took job very seriously  Discovers Champlain’s reports o Centralizes France and has them pledge their loyalty o Builds his vision: Rule the Empire, then the world  Begins to develop his empire Oliver Cromwell  Built English Mercantile Empire Jean Colbert  Began the development of the French Empire:  4 part French Empire: 1. France is the source of capitalism, technology, and manufactured goods 2. Moved quickly to Caribbean and picked up whatever islands he could a. Picked up Martinique and Walloon because of sugar cane i. Only had honey in France b. Colbert presents sugar to King and Queen i. Expansion of sugar plantations in Caribbean 3. French need to capture African coastal ports for slaves a. An early attempt of slavery to harvest sugar 4. New France (Canada) is a market place for French goods and the “bread basket” for the Caribbean  Need to develop a local government, or bureaucracy  Dominant religion is Roman Catholicism o French government looks like the Catholic church  King appoints a governor as the civil authority o Greatest governor: Comte de Frontenae *Intendant  in charge of the military  Greatest intendant: Jean de Talon *Bishop  in charge of religion  Sent soil from New France to the Caribbean  Decide they want to kill the English  Exploit the fur and lumbar trade  French are encouraged to marry Indians o Learned fighting technique o Priests sent to convert Indians to Catholicism o French are wild and earn the nickname “Coureur de bois”  Survive off the land  Specialize in guerilla warfare  After ruling for 20 years, Louis takes a trip down the Mississippi River o Expedition led by him and Charles Marquett  River widened and deepened as they traveled  Didn’t know what they were dealing with when they reached the Arkansas River o King financed another trip to travel farther down (1682)  Led by Lasol, who made it to the mouth of the Mississippi  The rights of expedition explain that if you travel down a river and place sovereigns in the ground, you can claim it for your country o French gain the river and all the connecting rivers o Have the opportunity to claim North America  Strategy: build forts by river way  Plan: settlers populate and drive English protestants to sea and kill them  Key: establish a strong fort  Build forts all along the rivers *1750 – 60,000 French in North America Mostly men who were all military 1.5 million English 1/2 female, 1/3 children, most men are farmers or ship- owners Louis’ plan is in motion Treaty of Whitehall (1686) – peace treaty between James II (Catholic) and Louis XIV  Stated that if French and English go to war, they will not fight in each others colonies o Go to war 3 years later


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