psych of gender ch 1 &2 lecture notes
psych of gender ch 1 &2 lecture notes PSY 216
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Sezan on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 216 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Heidi A. Hamann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Psych of Gender in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
08/23 Gender Roles: we have certain expectations that go along with being female and male Role: social position accompanied by norms or expectations Gender role: expectations that accompany being male or female *Expect men to be strong, not show emotions, i.e., masculine *Expect women to be caring, emotionally expressive, i.e., feminine there is not “one set” of gender roles gender roles vary and change different societies and cultures adopt different ideas about gender roles impact or era, ethnicity, age, religion, geographical region 08/25 Sex refers to biological categories of male and female o Features such as genes, chromosomes, hormones o Relatively stable, not easily changed Gender refers to social categories of male and female o Psychological features and role attributes o More fluid category: influence by society, culture, time Gender role: social expectations that accompany being male or female o May expect men to be strong, not show emotions, i.e., masculine o May expect women to caring, emotionally expressive, i.e., feminine Gender “nonconforming” behavior may contradict societal gender roles Intrarole conflict: expectations within a role conflict o Hard to do both, for the example o Ex: women should express own feelings and be sensitive to others’ needs Interrole conflict: expectations of one role conflict with expectations of another role o Between the roles o Ex: expectations of men’s father role conflict with expectations for gender role Gender identity: perception of self psychologically o Cisgender individuals: gender identity matches biological sex o Transgender individual's: Gender identity does not correspond to biological sex o Recent estimates of 1.4 million people in U.S. o Gender fluid individuals: may disagree with the binary concept of gender Sexual Orientation o Generally refers to preference for othersex and/or samesex persons as romantic partners, although more recent definitions address more broadly o Not synonymous with gender identity Gender, Status, and Culture o In most cultures, men (and the associated gender roles) have higher status than women (and their associated gender roles) o Literacy rates o Income o Legal rights o Safety o Employment o Leadership The Sex Differences Debate o People vary in beliefs about whether sexes are fundamentally similar or different o Minimalists: Believe sexes are basically the same, existing differences are small and often due to context, rarely roots in biology o Maximalists: believe there are fundamental differences Usually believe that one sex is not “better” than other, but some maximalists do emphasize advantage o Philosophical positions may affect how we interpret research findings (we will keep talking about this) o Constructionists Believe gender cannot be separated from the social context so difficult to “objectively” study sex differences o Intersectionality Gender cannot be understood independent of other social categories, including race, ethnicity, and social class Feminism o Different definitions, but fundamentally: The belief that women and men’s ideas and experiences should be equally valued Belief in the social, political, and economic quality of the sexes The word “feminism” has a historical context and recognizes traditional gender differences in status o There are also different “traditions” of feminism: Liberal feminism: Equality through political and legal reform Radical feminism: Equality through challenge of social norms and institutions Intersectional feminism: Equality through addressing multiple aspects of oppression Is there a Men’s Movement? o ProFeminist men’s movements National Organization for Men Against Sexism o Some men’s movements to promote “traditional” gender roles Mythopoetic movements Promise Keepers Sexist vs. NonSexist Language Does it really matter? o Yes. The use of generic “he” activates male images and is not seen as gender neutral Often communicates “male as normative” (ex: “Lady” for women’s sports teams) 8/30 Chapter 2 Steps in the Research Process o Theories → Hypothesis Generation → Hypothesis Testing → Data → Facts What is a MetaAnalysis o Statistical tool to summarize the results of many studies o Metaanalysis have been conducted on sex comparisons in a wide variety of domains o Considers both statistical significance and size of the difference Experimental Effects o Ways in which the experimenter can intentionally or unintentionally influence the results of a study Questions asked and study design Study design: participants Study design: variables manipulated and measured Data collection Data interpretation Communication of results Remedy: replication by multiple groups Participants Effects o Demand Characteristics refer to the way that participants can influence study outcomes Social desirability response bias More likely to occur when behavior is in public rather than private setting o Remedies: Ensure confidentiality, disguise purpose of study, have multiple measures of a behavior Setting: Laboratory vs. Field o Gender differences less likely to be found in laboratory rather than in field settings o In laboratories, men and women face similar conditions o In the real world, men and women often do not face similar situations Variables confounded with sex o When comparing the sexes, can’t be certain that differences are due to sex alone o Sex may be confounded with: Status Gender role Other factors Situational Influences o Need to consider situational constraints that can affect whether or not sex differences will emerge o More behaviorally constrained situation, more similarity o Certain situations, ex: weddings, can accentuate differences o Need to study gender in context, the situation in which men and women interact, and the people with whom they interact 18941936: Trying to establish sex differences in intelligence o Tried to establish that men are more intelligent than women Size of brain Size of specific brain areas o Experimenter biases a problem o Sex and personality by terman and miles (1936): No sex differences in intelligence 19361954: Masculinityfemininity as a global personality trait o Notion of gender roles introduced o Construct of masculinityfemininity (M/F) studied Attitude interest analysis survey (terman & miles, 1936) First comprehensive measures of M/F M/F opposite ends of a singly continuum Masculine men and feminine women see as “healthy” 19541982: Sex typing and androgyny o Influential book: The Psychology of Sex Differences by Maccoby and Jacklin o Video with eleanor maccoby describing the “early” days of her sex comparisons work o Innovation in conceptualization and measurement of gender: M/F not bipolar opposites o Masculinity/Femininity as separate dimensions Instrumental vs. expressive distinction Linked to gender roles in two widely used measures: Bem sexrole inventory (BSRI; BEM 1974) Personal attributes questionnaire Androgyny o Outgrowth of M/F inventories (E.G., BSRI) o High scores on M and F scales o Thus, androgynous person display with both M/F traits o Thought to be a healthy ideal but valued traits overlapped with M traits o Inventories criticized for sociable desirable items Undesirable aspects of M/F o Need to consider and measure the socially undesirable aspects of M & F gender roles o Led to personality constructs of unmitigated agency and unmitigated communion Unmitigated agency: Focus on self to the exclusion of others Unmitigated communion: focus on other to the exclusion of the self 1982Present: Gender as a social category o Two important shifts in thinking about gender Gender role as multifaceted, multidimensional: two dimensions are not enough Emphasis on social context in which gender occurs o Consideration of strain arising from norms associated with gender roles Emphasis on context o Consideration of situational forces that influence whether gender differences are observed o Social context influences display of sex differences and meaning of gender o Social construction of gender Gender arises from our interactions with others sep. .1 gender role attitudes and stereotypes attitudes towards men’s and women’s roles gender ideologies are attitudes towards men’s and women’s roles ∙ traditional gender ideology: distinct roles, men works and woman homemaker ∙ egalitarian gender ideology: there is an equal contribution ∙ transitional gender ideology: some where in the middle, I don’t believe in strict gender roles but not complete equality three components of gender role attitudes gender role ideologies have 3 interrelated components: ∙ cognitive o ex of gender role stereotypes ∙ affective o ex of gender based prejudice or sexism ∙ behavioral o ex of sex discrimination cognitive component: genderrole stereotypes stereotypes: organized, widely shared sets of beliefs about the characteristics and behaviors of men and women can be “good” or “bad” how are gender stereotypes developed? can start in children as young as 3 years old gender stereotyping can help children streamline the way they interact with a complex world by making categories how stereotypes are developed and maintained adults continue to use stereotypes to help guide the processing of information andorganize the world through categories “illusory correlation”: erroneous perception of connection between two events ∙ false perception of a connection that is consistent with our stereotypes how real are stereotypes? “Kernel of truth” position: stereotypes form through observations of overall group differences, but then extend into areas where no differences exist remember: even if a stereotype is consistent with an overall group difference, it never accurately represents all people within a group if see differences, hard to know if the stereotypes reflect those differences or if peopleinternalize stereotypes and act differently how can these stereotypes actually cause problems related to gender? they exaggerate the contrast between men and women make one category normative and one deviant cause biased judgments and attributions what are the consequences? we make errors in judgment or start attributing features to the alreadyformed stereotypes we start developing negative attitudes and emotions ( the “isms”) toward people based on out stereotypes of their group we negatively appraise individuals who hold “stereotype violation” ∙ people who succeed in counterstereotypical domains may face “backlash” effect ∙ ex. Hopkins vs. prince Waterhouse ( lesson in charm school law suit) basically she violated the stereotype of women and they didn’t like it gender stereotypes and behavior do stereotypes really influence how someone acts? ∙ “selffulfilling prophecy”: expectations about someone lead them to act in ways that confirm those expectations
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