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Week 3 Lecture 1 Notes - Male Anatomy

by: Miranda Kellner

Week 3 Lecture 1 Notes - Male Anatomy PSYC/CYAF 471

Marketplace > University of Nebraska Lincoln > PSYC/CYAF 471 > Week 3 Lecture 1 Notes Male Anatomy
Miranda Kellner

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About this Document

This will be on Exam 1
Human Sexuality
Rosemary Esseks
Class Notes
male, anatomy
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Kellner on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC/CYAF 471 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Rosemary Esseks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
Human Sexuality Psych/Soc/EdPsych/CYAF 471/871 09.06.16 Male Anatomy and Physiology External Sex Organs Penis—parts. •  Root—base of penis, attaching it to pelvic bones. •  Shaft—length of penis, between glans and where penis joins rest of body. •  Glans—head of penis; filled with nerve endings. •  Foreskin—loose hood of skin over glans. •  Urethral orifice—opening through which urine and semen are voided. •  Evolutionary reason for length of penis; reproduction “you have to get the sperm into the female egg” •  Curved shape ▯ the shape of the penis “scrapes” out someone elses’ sperm External Sex Organs Circumcision—surgical removal of penile foreskin •  Part of religious/ethnic identity for some groups throughout history and currently •  Performed in US since late 1800s for health reasons •  Currently performed on majority of male newborns in US. External Sex Organs Circumcision (cont.)— Arguments for— •  Custom •  Health benefits—cleanliness, reduced rates of STIs including HIV, urinary tract infections, and penile cancer. Arguments against—any surgery carries risk of infection/hemorrhage American Academy of Pediatrics and CDC now assert benefits outweigh the risks External Sex Organs Penis—internal structures. •  Cavernous bodies—two, top side of penis; engorge with blood during erection •  Spongy body—underside side of penis; also engorges with blood during erection •  Penile urethra—hollow tube that conducts urine and semen outside of body External Sex Organs Penis size— •  Average 3-4 inches when flaccid (not erect), 5-6 when erect. •  Larger not associated with greater sexual satisfaction. •  Size can be changed only by surgery, but results tend to be dissatisfactory (e.g., erections point down, lumps) External Sex Organs Penis—process of erection (engorgement with blood, causing increase in size). •  Arteries triggered to expand by autonomic (involuntary component of) nervous system, increasing blood flow in caernous and spongy bodies •  Outflow is reduced, causing excess blood to be retained •  Ends when arteries constrict, causing excess blood to drain External Sex Organs Scrotum— •  Lies outside of body because sperm production requires temperatures lower than inside body cavity •  May hang loosely from body or move closer depending on temperature and sexual stimulation •  Tunica dartos—inner layer of scrotum which, along with muscles of spermatic chord, moves scrotum up and down External Sex Organs Perineum—area between genitals and anus. •  Kegel exercises— •  Involve practicing tightening and relaxing pelvic floor muscles. •  Identified by stopping stream of urine •  Can improve ejaculatory control, strength of orgasms, overall genital sensation Male Anatomy: Internal Sex Organs Testes—male gonad; produce sperm and hormones Process of descent— •  Occurs during fetal development; move through inguinal canal from back of abdominal wall to scrotum. •  Cryptorchidism—condition in which testes fail to descend Internal Sex Organs Testes—2” wide, 1” long; egg-shaped. Parts include… •  Seminiferous tubules—coils responsible for sperm production •  Interstitial (Leydig’s) cells— produce testosterone; between Seminiferous tubules •  Epididymis—comma-shaped structures lying over testes; store sperm Internal Sex Organs Testes— •  Spermatogenesis—process by which sperm are formed –  Generally begins around age 10 –  Takes 72 days total. –  300 million mature per day. •  Spermatogonium— –  Immature sperm. –  Develop in outer lining of seminiferous tubules then move towards center. Internal Sex Organs Testes—spermatogenesis (cont.). Spermatozoa—mature sperm cells. Parts include... •  Head—contains chromosomes and enzymes to penetrate egg. •  Midpiece—generates energy •  Flagellum—tail; provides propulsion Internal Sex Organs Spermatic chord—attaches to testes, which are suspended on it. Parts include… •  Cremasteric muscle fibers—move testes up or down as needed. •  Vas deferens— –  Tubes that carry sperm from testes to seminal vesicles –  About 18” long. Internal Sex Organs Seminal vesicles—2” long. Add secretions to sperm, making up 60-70% of volume of semen. Secretions… •  Include fructose, energizing sperm •  Are alkaline, to counteract acidity of vagina •  Contain prostaglandins, causing contractions in female reproductive tract to help move sperm Seminal vesicles merge with vas deferens to form ejaculatory ducts, moving sperm into… Internal Sex Organs Seminal vesicles merge with vas deferens to form ejaculatory ducts, moving sperm into… •  Prostate gland—adds alkaline secretions as seminal fluid passes through to the urethra. •  Cowper’s (or bulbourethral gland)— –  Adds mucus and more alkaline secretions to seminal fluid. –  Fluid may appear prior to ejaculation and contains some sperm Ejaculation and Orgasm •  Seminal fluid (semen)—one ejaculation contains about 200 to 500 million sperm, comprising 1% of its volume. •  Retrograde ejaculation— –  Semen flows into bladder instead of out of body. –  Harmless but can signal medical problem •  Nocturnal emission—reported by 90% of men and 40% of women.


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