Functional Biology: Chapter1 Introduction Overview
Functional Biology: Chapter1 Introduction Overview 1330
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zaida Gomez on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1330 at Texas State University taught by Aglaia Chandler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Functional biology in Life and Physical Sciences at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 1: introduction overview Biology- study of life Organism- a living complex adaptive system of organs that function together (Greek: Organon= instrument) Characteristic of living organisms: 1.Organized 2.Metabolize 3.Reproduce 4.Respong to stimuli 5.Homeostatic 6.Grow/develop 7.Able to adapt Organisms have the POTENTIAL to: 1.movement 2.growth 3. nutrition 4. reproduction 5. respiration 6. sensitivity 7. reproduction *in special situation, sometimes these processes are suspended for a certain amount of time *viruses are not capable of reproduction or metabolism (considered to be microorganisms in the sense of biological weaponry and malicious use by United States Code) Life’s Levels of Organization Cell-> tissue-> organ-> organ system Populations-> communities-> ecosystems-> biosphere Molecules of life- everything is made up of same units of matter: Atoms & molecules living things are made up of certain molecules: nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid -molecule of life & inheritance -directs the assembly of amino acids Heritability of DNA Inheritance- DNA transmission from parents to offspring Reproduction- Mechanism of organism producing offspring - Governed by DNA Growth- increasing in cell count or size Development- changes that occur from conception to death - Fertilized egg to adult - Number of stages - Instructions per stage Characteristics of Living Organisms Acquisition of materials and energy Energy is the Basis of Metabolism Energy- capacity to do work Metabolism- reactions by which cells acquire and use energy to grow, survive, and reproduce Interdependencies among organisms 1. Producers: make their own food 2. Consumers: depend on energy stored in tissues of producers 3. Decomposers: break down remains/wastes Energy Flow -starts usually with energy from the sun - it flows from one organism to another - flows in one direction - energy will eventually flow back into the environment sun-> producer-> nutrient cycling-> consumer/decomposer-> energy output (mainly metabolic heat) Sensing and Responding Receptors detect specific forms of energy, aka Stimuli Homeostasis Sustains internal environment despite changes of the external environment Homeotherms: animals (mammals, birds) that have homeostatic mechanisms for sustaining internal temperature despite the external environment temperature Homeostatic Regulation 1. Receptor- sensitive to particular stimuli 2. Control Center (integration center)- processing info from receptor 3. Effector- responds to control center Unity of Life All organisms are - Made up of same substances - Metabolize - Sense/respond to environment - Reproduction capability based on DNA Diversity of Life Classification of Living Things Systematics- the discipline of identifying organisms Prokaryotes- lack membrane bound nucleus Eukaryotes- have a membrane bound nucleus “true nucleus” Domain-> kingdom-> phylum -> class-> order-> family-> genus-> species Domain- largest classification 1. Bacteria- single celled, prokaryotes - Found everywhere - Disease causing, yet can be beneficial 2. Archaea- single celled, prokaryotes - Found in environments too hostile for other life forms 3. Eukarya- protists, plants, fungi, animals - Membrane bound nucleus Four kingdoms 1. Protista (may be several kingdoms but mostly unicellular that don’t fit in other kingdoms) 2. Fungi 3. Plantae 4. Animalia Prokaryotes -Archaea/Bacteria -Single celled -No nucleus/organelles -Producers, consumers, decomposers Eukaryotes -Eukarya (plants, fungi, animals, protists) - DNA in nucleus -larger and more complex than prokaryotes Plants -multi-celled -photosynthetic producers -they’re the food base for land communities Fungi -multi-celled -consumers/decomposers -extracellular digestion and absorption -many parasites and pathogens Animals -multi-celled consumers -herbivores, carnivores, parasites, scavengers -mobile Scientific Names Taxonomy- assignment of a binomial to each species Binomial- two-part naming system devised by Carolus Linnaeus - Genus name, species name (Genus capitalized, both italicized) (genus plural is genera) Organelles, Cells, and Organisms Organisms 1.Prokaryotes- (unicellular- bacteria) 2. Eukaryotes- (multi-cellular) Cell - Structural and functional unit of life - Contains many different chemical substances distributed among it’s several components Mutation: Source of Variation -A mutation is a change in structure of DNA -variation in traits -most are malicious Adaptive Trait A trait that grants the individual with an advantage in survival or reproduction under a given set of circumstances Trait- characteristic or property of an object Evolution - Genetically based change over time - Population changes, not individuals - Natural selection Natural Selection and Populations Population-same species, live in same area, live at the same time Natural Selection-the outcome of differences in survival and reproduction among individuals that vary in detail of heritable traits (helps explain evolution) Natural Selection occurs if: 1. Individuals vary in heritable characteristics 2. In the environment, versions of the heritable traits help reproduction more than other versions Evolutionary Change - Heritable traits lead to increased success in offspring production (more common) - Population change as a result of natural selection acting on individuals - Evolutionary change occurs in populations Artificial Selection - Breeders favoring traits - Favored traits increase in population Observations, Hypotheses, and Tests - Observe phenomenon (inductive reasoning) - Develop hypothesis (tentative explanation) - Make predictions - Device test of predictions - Perform test and analyze results The Scientific Method Inductive Reasoning- when a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a whole Deductive Reasoning- when a scientist determines how to test a hypothesis 1. Observe an event 2. Develop hypothesis (model) 3. Test prediction 4. Observe results 5. Revise hypothesis 6. Repeat as needed 7. A successful hypothesis becomes a Scientific Theory Scientific Theory - Well-supported hypothesis - Supported by a broad range of observations, experiments, and data - Been tested and not yet found incorrect - Wide-range explanatory power (Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection - Repeatability Basic Theories of Biology: 1. Cell Theory- all living organisms are composed of cells (multi/unicellular), basic unit of life, cells arise from pre-existing cells 2. Homeostasis- organisms have ability to keep constant internal environment in response to environmental changes 3. Gene Theory- genes are the unit of inheritance 4. Ecosystem- organisms interacting with themselves and environment 5. Evolution- genetically based change over time Theories overview: - Highly successful - All hypotheses make predictions - All theories make predictions - All theories can be tested - ALSO: any scientific theory is subjected to change as our ability to make tests, or make observations of a test’s results, improves with time Role of Experiments - Procedures used to study a phenomenon under known conditions - Allows you to predict what will happen if a hypothesis is not wrong - Can never prove a hypothesis 100% correct Experimental design Control group- standard for comparison, receives no treatment Experimental group- receives treatment Sampling Error- non-representative sample skews results, minimize by using large samples Limits of Science -Cannot provide moral, aesthetic, or philosophical standards
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