ANS 411: Week 2 Materials
ANS 411: Week 2 Materials ANS 411
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carlin Truell on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 411 at North Carolina State University taught by Dr. Paul Siciliano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Management and Growing of Performance Horses in Animal Science at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
ANS 411 Growing and Performance Horse Management Growth Curve Parameters Learning Outcomes: 1. Describe growth curve parameters for body weight and height of growing horses. 2. Calculate the average daily gain over a given period of time. I) Growth curves A) Body weight 1) Make a list of information that can be obtained from the following growth curve. (a) Birth weight (i) This is the starting point ● ~9% of mature body weight 1 Siciliano 20Aug08 2) Calculate the average daily gain during the periods between: ● 03 mo: 141.848.5=93.3kg/(3months x 30.4days)=1.02kilograms/day ● 36 mo: 0.81kg or 1.81Lbs ● 612 mo: 0.58kg or 1.31Lbs ● 1218 mo: 0.36kg or 0.79Lbs ● 1824 mo: 0.23kg or 0.51Lbs ● On average each month is 30.4 days. ADG, kg/d = (Ending Wt. – Starting Wt.) / (number of months x 30.4 d/mo) Age, 500 mo kgBW 0 48.5 1 82 2 113 3 141.8 4 168.5 5 193.1 6 215. 9 7 237 8 256.5 9 274.6 10 291. 4 11 306.9 12 321.2 13 334.5 14 346.8 15 358.2 16 368.7 17 378.5 18 387.5 24 429.2 30 455.5 36 472 3) How does average daily gain change over time? (a) As horses get older their daily gains level off B) Wither height 1) Compare the change in % of mature body weight over time with that of % mature wither height over time. 2 Siciliano 20Aug08 (a) What are the differences in these curves and what do they mean from a practical standpoint? (i) Wither height is measured from the ground to the withers (ii) Wither height measures skeletal growth (iii) Both the height and weight curves will reach a maximum (iv) The horse will start at a greater percentage of height than they will in weight (v) Growth of the foal occurs mostly in utero ● Horses are born at 60% of their mature height ● Horses will be at 85% of their mature height at 6 months of age ● Horses will be at 92% of their mature height at 1 year of age (vi) Mare nutrition plays a huge role in determining the height and weight at birth 3 Siciliano 20Aug08 (b) Some estimates of percent mature wither height. Age, height, mo % mature height 0 61.5 1 68.5 3 77.5 6 84.5 9 88.5 12 91.5 18 95.5 24 97.5 30 98.5 36 99.5 II) Summary A) The growing horse is always changing B) The rate of change varies with age and tissue type (e.g., bone, muscle, adipose etc…) C) Growth parameters that reflect this change are important tools in managing growing horses. 1) Example: average daily gain is used in determining nutrient requirements and for monitoring the effectiveness of a feeding program. 4 Siciliano 20Aug08 5 Siciliano 20Aug08 ANS 411 Growing and Performance Horse Management Weaning – overview, challenges and methods Learning Outcomes: 1. Describe the timing and duration of weaning in free ranging and domestic horses. 2. Describe the necessity for weaning in domestic horses. 3. Describe the health risks associated with weaning. 4. Describe preweaning management strategies aimed at minimizing health risks. 5. Describe commonly used weaning methods. 6. Describe measures/indicators of health status that can be used to assess the effectiveness of the program. I) Overview A) Weaning characteristics among free ranging horses 1) Free ranging (wild horses) (a) Begins ~6 to 12 months of age (b) May take up to 2 to 3 years B) Weaning characteristics of domestic horses 1) At what age does weaning usually occur and why? (a) Occurs between 56 months of age (b) Why? (i) Control nutrient intake (ii) The body conditioning of the mare (iii) Ability to train the foal and the foal’s behavior (iv) The mares daily milk yield declines with progressing lactation ● Becomes less than the foal’s demand (v) Milk nutrient content declines (vi) Foal’s digestive system changes with age ● Hindgut grows and is developed to digest fibrous feeds at 6 months of age ♦ Volatile fatty acids for energy break down fiber and is then metabolized for energy 2) Is there any advantage to weaning foals “early” vs “later” (a) Foals that are weaned early at 23 months of age tend to not thrive as well as horses weaned at 56 months of age (b) There is not a large advantage in terms of body weight when it comes to weaning early vs. late 1 Siciliano 6Aug10 (c) There can be a post weaning slump if the foal is not fed adequately 3) How young can a foal be weaned? (a) There is no minimum age (b) What are some practical reasons why foals are weaned “early”? (i) The mare dies (ii) The mare does not produce milk (iii) The mare colics II) Physiological effects of weaning A) Stress 1) Defined (a) Response to the changing environment B) Endocrine response to stress and subsequent effects 1) What is the primary hormone associated with stress and how does it affect the stressed weanling? (a) CRH (b) ACTH (c) Cortisol (i) Stimulates gluconeogenesis (ii) Antiinflammatory/immunosuppressive (iii) Plasma cortisol is higher in weaned pairs than weaned singles Stressors V V V CRH < Hypothalamus +V V ACTH < Anterior pituitary +V V Cortisol < Adrenal cortex V Liver, fat, muscle, lymphocytes, etc. C) Effect on growth 1) Average daily body weight gain (a) Preweaning is ~.9 kilos per day (b) 1 week post weaning is ~.15 kilos per day (c) 3 weeks post weaning is ~.6 kilos per day 2) Bone growth (a) The foal’s bones are vulnerable 2 Siciliano 6Aug10 (b) Foals that are stalled tend to have reduced bone density which can increase the risk of injury D) Disease susceptibility 1) Foals are more susceptible to diseases because of stress E) Effect on various behaviors 1) Vocal (a) May call out for a period of time (i) Should be short 2) Physical activity (a) Body temp may rise 3) Eating (a) Intake may decrease III) Preweaning strategies to avoid negative physiological effects A) Creep feeding 1) Principle (a) Creep feed is a supplemental feed that is available only to the foal (b) Foals learn to eat grain from their dams (c) Mares cannot keep up with the nutritional requirements of the foal 2) General creep feeder designs (a) Foals can access the feed and mares cannot (i) Foals can fit through slats in a fence where the feed is kept (ii) Creep feeder buckets that only the foal can get their muzzle in between the bars ● Not very successful the mares often bend the bars on the bucket (iii) Foals can get under a board in the corner of a stall to access the feed 3) Appropriate feeds (a) Grainmix concentrate vs complete feed (i) Complete feed ● A complete feed must have a high fibrous content and a grainmix concentrate content ● Can be fed as the sole ration ♦ 1 mouth full is the same as the next (ii) Grainmix concentrate ● A grainmix concentrate is a mix of vitamins, minerals, and calories 3 Siciliano 6Aug10 ● It is only a supplemental feed and cannot be fed as the sole ration 4) Appropriate amounts (a) ½ lb to 1lb/hd/mo of age (i) Ex. 3 month old weanling gets 1.5 to 3lbs/hd (b) Feeds with a high fibrous content are tougher to overeat (i) Overeating is more common in a group setting (c) Fat horses are not healthy (i) It is better to feed a complete feed because it helps avoid this (d) It is important to feed a balanced ration because if too much gas builds up it can cause bloat or stomach rupture (i) Most often caused by grain buildup 5) Group vs individually fed (a) Complete feed is best for group feeding (b) Grainmix is okay for feeding individually (c) Individual feeding is the best (d) Group feeding requires careful management 6) Creep feeding management (a) The design of the creep feeder must allow all horses that need it to have access to the feed (i) Either 1 long trough or several feeding areas to prevent dominate foal from guarding feed (b) Feed appropriate amounts and should be empty and refilled daily (i) Old feed should be disposed of and new feed should be put out (c) Small frequent meals are better than fewer larger meals (d) Keep the feeder clean to prevent illness and spread of diseases (e) Make sure the feed is properly distributed among the foals B) Vaccination 1) Why is it necessary? (a) Trying to elicit immune response without infecting the horse (b) Trying to build up immunity (c) Foals receive immunity from passive transfer through colostrum (d) Killed or live vaccine (e) Intramuscular or intranasal (f) Vaccination results in the formation of new antibodies 2) Importance of timing (a) Mares need to be vaccinated 46 weeks prior to foaling (i) This builds up maternal antibodies in colostrum 4 Siciliano 6Aug10 (b) Foal’s antibodies decrease prior to weaning (c) 1st vaccine is given prior to weaning (i) If it is given too late it causes a period of inadequate protection (ii) If it is given too early maternal antibody interference occurs 3) Which vaccines are given? (a) Many factors to consider (veterinary consultation is advised) (i) Core vaccines ● Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis ● Tetanus ● Rabies ● West Nile Virus (b) American Association of Equine Practitioners Recommended Vaccination Guidelines (initial foal vaccinations; booster information will follow in subsequent lectures). Vaccination Timing (assuming mare was vaccinated) Disease Primary Botulism 2 to 3 mo (3 doses; 4 wk interval) West Nile Virus 4 to 6 mo depending upon type of vaccine Eastern, Western and Venezuelan 4 to 6 mo (3 dose series; 46 wk Encephalomyelitis interval) EHVI and IV 4 to 6 mo Strep. Equi (strangles) 4 to 6 mo (injectable) 6 to 9 mo (intranasal) Potomac Horse Fever 5 to 6 mo Rabies No < 6 mo (2nd dose 46 week later) Tetnus 4 to 6 mo (3 dose series; 46 wk interval) 5 Siciliano 6Aug10 Influenza 6 mo (single dose IN; 3 dose im 46 wk interval Modified from AAEP vaccination guidelines http://www.aaep.org/vaccination_guidelines.htm C) Deworming 1) 1st deworming occurs at 46 weeks of age (a) This is repeated every 4 weeks until 1 year of age 2) Ascarids are the most common worm in foals (a) They live in the lungs (b) They get coughed up and then reswallowed (c) Can affect the horse's future performance D) Halter broke and able to handle 1) The foal needs to be be calm and used to handling when receiving treatments 2) Reduces stress and risk of injury E) Planning ahead 1) Looking ahead at weather (a) You want good weather when weaning because you will be monitoring foals frequently 2) Plan to monitor frequently for ~72 h IV)Weaning methods A) Abrupt removal 1) Mare or foal is taken away and out of sight from each other (a) Group in pasture (i) Simple (ii) Stress minimized by leaving weanlings in the pasture and mares are taken away (iii) Requires sound and safe fencing (b) Stall weaning (paired vs singly) (i) Good for high quality horses to reduce risk of injury (ii) Makes handling of foal easier (c) Interval or pasture weaning (i) Relatively low stress (ii) Low labor input (iii) Mares are removed 1 at a time B) Gradual separation 1) Mare and foal can see each other but cannot nurse 2) Requires adequate fencing 6 Siciliano 6Aug10 V) Feeding and care the day of weaning A) Forage and water always available B) Frequent monitoring of feed intake is important C) Generally offer ~½ of current intake in grain 1) Usually don’t eat well for a couple of days 2) Want to avoid going totally of grain and then an abrupt return to full feed (a) Ruptured stomach can be a result of this VI) Biosecurity A) Disease susceptible population B) Isolated from other horses 1) Especially transient horses C) If the horses are kept in stalls then it is feasible to wash and disinfect prior to using D) Use care when moving through the herd 1) Start with weanlings first VII) Monitoring health A) Feed intake B) Manure amount and consistency C) General attitude D) Body weight and condition score VIII) Pre and post weaning mare care A) Weaning is stressful for mares B) Feeding 1) Feed like a lactating mare preweaning and postweaning (a) Do this until the ideal body condition is achieved C) Housing 1) Can be housed in stall or pasture 2) Needs to be out of earshot or eyeshot of foal for ~4 weeks 7 Siciliano 6Aug10
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