Week 2 Set of Class Notes
Week 2 Set of Class Notes 2009
Popular in Correctional Systems
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2009 at East Carolina University taught by Chad R. Jordan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Correctional Systems in Criminal Justice at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Week 2 Notes Quiz questions: 1. Punishment (more historical, penalties dont correct the act) vs. corrections (more modern term, correction/to correct) 2. What is the oldest code of law? Code of Hammurabi 3. Lex Talionis: revenge/retribution/retaliation/eye for an eye 4. What is trial by ordeal? Impossible task given to prove innocence or guilt but people would die either way 5. Public Wrong vs. Private wrong Major Critical Thinkers in Early History ● Age of enlightenment gave us this 6 philosophers ○ Charles montesquieu ■ Pertain letters ○ John Howard ■ Tried to improve prison conditions ○ Cesare Beccaria ■ 1st on the timeline than to Jeremy Bentham ○ Jeremy Bentham ■ England (leading reform) ■ Premoted proportionality, agreed often with Beccaria (his mentor) ■ Know for hedonism, the pleasure pain principle ● You compare the amount of pleasure vs. pain you will get out of doing something, or whatever act you are about to perform ● The more pain the situation will cause the less likely you are to commit it and visa versa ○ William Penn ■ the Quakers, and the Great Law ■ Loss of liberty, hard labor more effective than death penalty ○ Francon Voltaire ○ Charles Montesquieu, Francois Voltaire, and Cesare Beccaria ■ Focus on human rights ■ Proportional punishment ■ Rehabilitation over retribution ● Punishment in Early America ○ Old Newgate Prison (1773) ■ Connecticut ■ Called the first prison, designed for punishment ■ Made people work in the mine while they were there ■ Put a rock wall and gaude towers up due to many escapes ■ We're not trying to reform or rehabilitate, just bunish ○ The Walnut Street Jail(1790) ■ Called the First penitentiary, designed for reform, 1st attempt to do this ■ Pennsylvania Prison society lead to the creation of this jail ○ The Pennsylvania System ■ Western (1826) & Eastern (1829)Penitentiary ■ Designed for solitude, repentance ■ Solitary confinement, no working, food was brought to them, individual cells ■ Talking lead to punishment (corporal Punishment ○ The Auburn System (1816still open) ■ Designed for work, repentance ■ Work during the day and then brought back to their cell for solitary confinement, individual cells ■ Routine and public like the idea that they were working for their crimes ■ Work, read the bible and repent in hopes of changing behaviors ○ Two American Prototypes in Conflict ■ The Auburn System’s economic benefits prevailed ■ The combination of work and solitary worked much better for prisoners and for the economy ○ The Southern System ■ PreCivil War: Black Codes ● During slavery ● Black codes = slaves had separate laws from the whites ■ PostCivil War: Penal farms (up to 1864) ● Abolishment of slavery ● Inmates that were in prison could be leased, so inmates we’re working like slaves on farms ○ Angola, Louisiana ○ Commins, Arkansa ● Abuse inmates, punished them harshly and violently ○ Inmates were carrying guns and supervising other inmates (called Trustees) ● Ruffin v. Commonwealth ■ Chain gangs: Profitable labor ● Connect inmates by chain (the chain and ball) and they would have to work while they were chained up and were often still chained when they were sleeping ● Worked on roads, levees (public projects/hard labor) ○ The Western System ■ Holding cells for inmates ● Held them until their court days ■ Contracted custody with other states ● Sent prisoners away to work in other states because they didn’t have their own prison systems ■ Eventually adopted Auburn System ● Started building their own prisons ● THE AGE OF THE REFORMATORY IN AMERICA ○ National Prison Association – 1870 – drafted Declaration of Principles: ○ Reformation over punishment ■ Began carrying more about inmates and fixing their behaviors for the future, and bringing them back into the real world ○ Classification of inmates ■ Convince inmates to think better of themselves and want more for themselves ○ Indeterminate sentences (not a fixed sentence) ■ Sentence with a range (a min and max) if you are good it will be less, if you are bad it is the max ○ Selfefficacy ● Elmira Reformatory – 1876 ○ First reformator ○ Warden: Zebulon Brockway, Used the idea of the Mark system ○ Mark system ■ Got marks for good days, would advance in the system and could work off your freedom (must have work habits and conduct) ■ Idea was to learn your lesson ○ Individualized plans of reform ○ Evidence shows limited success in rehab, there ended up being no advantage to using these reformatory prisons 912016 ● Prisons in America: 1900s To the end of World War II ○ Prison Farming Systems ■ Profit driven, based on agriculture ■ Arkansas System inmates in charge of other inmates ○ Progressive Era ■ Trying to reform prison to have humane treatment of inmates ■ “The progressives” cask a light on the inhumane treatment of inmates to public, get gov. To improve things ■ Deviance social and psychological causes lead to deviance ○ The Era of the “Big House” ■ Made of Concrete and steel ■ Checkpoints throughout facility ○ The Medical Model (1929 authorized by congress. BOB: Sanford Bates) ■ Mental health approach (behavior science) ■ Criminality result of internal deficiencies (a sickness that can be treated though finding their deficiencies as a person) ■ Classification process: High Risk, Moderate Risk, Low Risk (Level 15) ● Use statistics and questionnaire data to label/classify inmates on a risk level ● Felt like it could help rehabilitate criminals however it was just a good organizational tool ■ Criminals committing crimes is a sickness/they have no control and we should treat them and rehabilitate ○ The Reintegration Model ■ Criminality result of external environment ● Use the environment to determine causes of crime and environments that encourage crime and help inmates avoid them ● Help inmates ease back into the world, find jobs and have a place to live to help them not reoffend ■ Martinson Report ● Research showed that rehabilitation and reintegration did not slow down criminals and recidivism was still the same ● Knocked back the idea of rehabilitation and how well it works ○ The Crime Control Model ■ “Get tough” policies ● Harsh punishment, strict laws ○ House arrest, monortering, death penalties ● People saw it as too ambitious ● Overcrowding occurred and spent a lot of money on inmates in jail (too expensive) ● Corrections Today ○ Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP:1930) ■ 100 facilites ■ 50% drug offenders, 12% are citizens of other countries ■ 50% low or min.security risk ■ Avg. time served is 6.5 ○ State Corrections ■ 50% violent offenders ■ Most common form of corrections ■ State budgets smaller than BOP’s ○ Evergence of the “BIG FOUR” ■ 4 largest states ● Texas :168,00 ● California: 135,000 ● Florida: 103,000 ● New York: 55,000 ■ Largest freeworld pops. ■ Relatively representative of U.S populations ■ Ethnically diverse ■ Robust economies ● Philosophical Underpinnings ○ Retributions: offenders committing a crime should be punished in a like fashion to the severity of the crime ○ Incapacitation: deprives offenders of their liberties and removes them from society ○ Deterrence (general and specific) :Stopping or preventing crime ■ General: Observers see it so the punishment is there to show others not to do it ■ Specifi ○ Rehabilitations: fix their issues EX: substance abuse or anger issues and they will not reoffend, help them fit back into society ○ Restorative Justice: NO court room, community listens about crime and they find a way to fix it and resolve it ○ Reintegrations: reintegrative people safely into society
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