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EAR 110 Lecture 1 Notes

by: Yena Kim

EAR 110 Lecture 1 Notes EAR 110 - M020

Yena Kim

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About this Document

These notes cover what the professor covered in the first lecture.
Dynamic Earth
D. Curewitz
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yena Kim on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAR 110 - M020 at Syracuse University taught by D. Curewitz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Earth Sciences at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Lecture 1: August 30, 2016 Chapter 1: Cosmology and the Birth of Earth  Any element heavier than iron was created in the explosion of a star  Universe contains 2 basic things o Matter o Energy  (matter and energy are actually equivalents)  scientific method is used to explore the cosmos o question -> observations (data) -> interpretation -> hypothesis (testable assertion/prediction) -> test (if wrong, redo hypothesis, retell interpretation, re- measure observations, re-ask question) o “Law = the what of things” o “Theory = the why of things”  Stars are fixed relative to each other (all stars rotate about a fixed point)  Planets move against the background of stars  Universe is geocentric vs. heliocentric o Geocentric: heavenly bodies circle around a motionless central Earth, held as religious dogma for 1,400 years o Heliocentric: sun-centered universe, idea was unpopular until the Renaissance  Figuring out the structure of the universe o Renaissance: new age of discovery in 1400s Europe  New age of scientific exploration:  Copernicus: published evidence for heliocentricity  Kepler: proved planets follow elliptical orbits  Galileo: observed moons orbiting Jupiter  Newton: gravity explains motions of celestial bodies  Telescopes allow astronomers to better see the universe o Star: immense sphere of incandescent gas o Galaxy: group of stars  100 billion galaxies constitute the visible universe o Milky Way Galaxy: Earth’s galaxy  Over 300 billion other stars in the Milky way  Objects in the Solar System o Sun: contains 99.8% of all mass in the Solar System o Planets  Orbit a star (the Sun)  Roughly spherical shape  Clean out the path of your orbit (has to clear it’s neighboring) o Small objects  2 groups of planets o terrestrial planets  small, dense, rocky planets  Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars o Gas- giant planets  Large, low-density planets  Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune  Exoplanets o Planets found outside the solar system  Use Kepler Space Telescope  2,000 exoplanet candidates found  Milky Way may contain 14 Billion Earth sized exoplanets  Solar System o Small objects in the Solar System  Moons  Solid body locked in orbit around a planet  Every planet except Mercury and Venus have moons  Asteroids  Rocky and/or metallic objects that orbit the sun  Dwarf planets  Rocky or icy bodies that are greater than 2,000 km in diameter  Eros is the largest (larger than Pluto)  Comets  Icy objects that orbit the sun beyond Neptune o Terrestrial planets are the four most interior o Asteroid belt lies between Mars and Jupiter o Gas Giant Planets occupy the four outermost orbits o Comets and most dwarf planets exist beyond Neptune  Sense of Shape and Scale o Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of Earth in ~200 BC  Measured shadows in deep wells 800 km apart  Measurements were taken at noon on the same day  Syene: shadow absent (sun is directly overhead)  Alexandria: shadow at 7.2˚  Calculated Earth’s circumference as 39,300 (real one is 40,008 km)


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