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ARCH 218 Lecture 1 Notes

by: Carolyn Adams

ARCH 218 Lecture 1 Notes 218

Carolyn Adams
Cal Poly
GPA 3.3

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These are the first notes from week 1. It starts talking about European architecture.
History of World Architecture Middle Ages - 18th century
Dr. C. Yip
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carolyn Adams on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 218 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. C. Yip in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see History of World Architecture Middle Ages - 18th century in Architecture at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
ARCH 218 Lecture 1: Romanesque I. The Classical Legacy in Europe ­ “Classical Arch” generally refers to the architecture of Ancient Greece and Rome  and to later arch derived from ancient Greece and Rome ­ In Europe the legacy is strong and persistent; much of Europe arch and urbanism  in this course is related to Greek and Roman arch. ­ Akropolis: Athens ­ Parthenon devoted to Athena (447­432) column and beam system used in  Greece ­ Iktinos and Kallikrates: sculpture by Phidias      ­     Roman Arch Arches and Vaults: Romans are first to exploit it for monumental arch. The basic  principles of the arch differ from post and lintel (column and beam) structures. ­Pantheon: Rome (ca. 120 CE) span of 140 feet only concrete, took over 1000  years for another this large  Along with the Colliseum    ­ constructed of concrete faced with brick and stone ­Pozzolana, a volcanic ash, is in Roman Arch    I. C. Early Christian Arch Constantine sponsored the first great Christian building projects ­St. Peter’s Basilica: Rome (ca. 324 CE)   Basilica­ general purpose public building ­ although location was determined by events of tombs, the shapes of these posed  a problem   I. D. Carolingian Architecture In Western Europe, the arch. of Roman Empire served as a model and a challenge ­ Palatine Chapel: Aachen, Germany (796­804) ­ Charlemagne II. Europe 1000­th00: Romanesque Architecture ­ In the 11  Century, trade and commerce prospered  ­ Of all building types furthered by this prosperity, the church was most central ­ Monastic orders held land and wealth and built many monumental churches th ­ “Romanesque” refers to a type of arch that begins in the 10  Century and flourishes  until the development of Gothic arch in the late 12  century ­ This arch was influenced by Rome ­Pont de Guard       II. A. France and the Pilgrimage Road Churches  ­ Pilgrimage and Relics ­ Pilgrimages had long been part of Christian worship, but through the 10   th century long­distance pilgrimages were few ­ Rome was a major destination because of Holy Land held by Muslims ­ Santiago de Copostela became site for pilgrimage ­ Relics of Saints became centers of Cult (ex. Ste. Foy in Conques)     ­     Plans of Pilgrimage Churches ­ Churches functioned as major steps along pilgrimage routes, ex. Along route to  Santiago ­ churches shaped like crosses with hallways around main church to avoid  disruption ­     Ste. Foy Conques, France (ca. 1050­1120) additive composition, piling up of discrete  parts ­ sculpture is major element of most Romanesque churches, tympanum sculpture  shows the Last Judgement, remarkable for its dense, graphic, and detailed  description of Hell, in age when literacy was rare, sculpture and painting served to carry messages ­ The Plan: rational circulation w/ aisles and ambulatory, radiating chapels around east end, additive composition of repeated units ­ Although many Romanesque builders used stone vaults for the nave, there were  no drawbacks to barrel (circular) vaults ­ Vault has to be supported vertically and horizontally (lateral load w/ buttresses)  b/c high arches try to push walls out ­ groin vaulting distributes load more equally among the pillars       II. B. Italy ­ Romanesque Architecture in Italy developed differently than France or England,  vary b/c city­states ­ Throughout Italy the legacy of Roman Arch remained strong, esp. Basilica style  church ­ Cathedral, Companile, and Baptistry of S.M. Maggiore (1063): Pisa, Italy S.M. Maggiore: distinct blind arcades, marble décor (associated with Rome),  classical elements, basilica plan, flat ceiling Companile: (bell tower) “leaning tower of Pisa” begun 1174


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