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Terrorism and Homeland Security Week 1

by: Paula Ghita

Terrorism and Homeland Security Week 1

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Paula Ghita

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There notes were for Week One of Terrorism and Homeland Security at Ohio University. Covers Basic definitions of Terrorism and the main beginnings.
Terrorism and Homeland Security
Thomas Quinlan
Class Notes
terrorism, Homeland Security, FBI
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paula Ghita on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Ohio University taught by Thomas Quinlan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Terrorism in Historical and Social Contexts Ch.1 Learning Objectives: Chapter 1 o Explain the reason terrorism is difficult to define o Summarize the impact of context on definitions of terrorism o Explain the impact the Enlightenment on democracy and potential revolutionary thought. o Summarize the origins of modern terrorism from the Enlightenment through the Napoleonic wars. o Explain why terrorism became defined as a revolutionary activity after the European experience in 1848. o Define socialism, anarchism, and communism. o Summarize the differing meanings of terrorism in Russia from the Peoples' Will through the Lenin and Trotsky. o Summarize the early history of the Irish Republican Army. o Define selective terrorism as used by Michael Collins. The difficulty with definitions Terrorism is difficult to define. It is a social construct- terrorism is defined by different people within vacillating social and political realities. The term has spawned heated debate because it is imprecise and scornful.  The term evokes a variety of politically charged responses As a result there are many definitions of terrorism and no single accepted understanding. Varying Terrorism Definitions The search for a universal, precise definition of terrorism has been challenging for researchers and practitioners alike. Different definitions exist across the federal, international, and research communities. Title 22 of U.S. Code, Section 2656f(d) defines terrorism as: o "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence and audience." The FBI defines terrorism as: o "the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." Both definitions of terrorism share a common theme: the use of force intended to influence or instigate a course of action that furthers a political or social goal. CIA  The Intelligence Community is guided by the definition of terrorism contained in Title 22 of the US Code, Section 2656f(d): a. The term "terrorism" means premeditated,* politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents. b. The term "international terrorism" means terrorism involving the territory or the citizens of more than one country. c. The term "terrorist group" means any group that practices, or has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism. *It's important to plant people around the world. They need the word pre- meditated in order to be able to look for people in the pre-planning stage. Influence of Social Construct Terrorism is defined within social and political contexts. a. Different meanings in different periods of time b. Different meanings in different contexts within the same period of time Primary reason no single definition of terrorism will ever be successful. Social context influences definition of terrorism, for example: a. U.S. State Department Anti-Terrorism Assistance views Hezbollah as a terrorist group-Jordanians' view Hezbollah as a legitimate militia. i. Hezbollah is "Party of Allah" or "Party of God" ii. Emerged in 1982; calls for the destruction of Israel, obliteration more specifically b. Israel views their actions as a means of self-defense-Lebanon views the same actions as acts of terrorism. When the term terrorism was first introduced in Western history, governments adjusted their policies based on the way they defined terrorism. a. This process is evidenced by recent changes in American defense and law enforcement policy. b. US Patriot Act c. Do not fly lists. i. Won't even tell you if you're on the list/how you got on the list/ how to get off. French Revolution The meaning of terrorism underwent a subtle transformation during the Napoleonic Wars. -The meaning shifted away from governmental repression to the resistance of some people to governments. a. This definitional change would continue through the 19 century. 1848 and the Radical Democrats When a small minority of the radical democrats called for violence and terrorism people with political power began to label all types of activism, violent or not as terrorism. -Terrorism as it is known today came into its infancy. Socialism, Anarchism, and Communism  Socialism: Refers to controlling an economy by direct democracy and utilizing economic profits to ensure the well-being of citizens. -Socialists believed that a strong state would ensure that profits from industry were distributed in an egalitarian manner.  Anarchism: Philosophical concept originating in ancient Greece. In the 18 th century Anarchists generally disavowed the power of national governments. -Terrorism in the modern sense came from violent anarchists in the late 1800s. -The most successful actions took place in Russia before the 1905 and 1917 revolutions. -Anarchism spread to the United States in the form labor violence.  Communism: In its ideal form is socialism where economic production and profits are owned and distributed by workers. -Karl Marx (1818-1883) -Fredrich Engels (1820-1895) Irish Republic Army- Early History The Irish have never ruled their island as a single political entity, and the Irish have experienced some type of foreign domination for hundreds of centuries. th By the 20 century the struggle in Ireland became a matter of the divisions between: -Unionists; people wanting to remain in Great Britain and Ireland, and -Republicans; people wanting independence The Republican military solution came when the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) formed in the 1850s. -Irish Republican Army (IRA) began with a campaign of violence sponsored by the IRB in the late 1800s. The Easter Rising The British had promised home rule to Ireland when World War I came to an end. Easter in 1916, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly led a revolt in Dublin. The 1916 Easter Rising enjoyed local success because it surprised everyone. The British handed down several dozen death sentences and imprisoned hundreds more for the Easter Rising. Black and Tan War (1920-1921) Sinn Fein, the political party of Irish republicanism, continued its activities in spite of the failure of the Easter Rising. British government rejected Home Rule at the end of WWI. Sinn Fein moved into the arena by discrediting the Parliamentary Party. -Moderation fell to the wayside as extreme republicanism increased. Selective Terror Michael Collins developed a strategy called "selective terrorism:" -Collins reasoned that indiscriminate terror was of no value. -Random or large-scale attacks would alienate public opinion To be effective, terrorism had to selectively and ruthlessly target security forces and their symbols of authority. -Collins's men ambushed off-duty police and intelligence officers and murdered them. -In crowded areas, IRA terrorists would throw bombs and shoot police officers, then disappear before authorities could respond. Separation and Independence In 1921, southern Ireland became the Free State- The Republic of Ireland. -Collins along with the majority of people in Ireland accepted the treaty. -The IRA did not. A civil war broke out in the newly formed republic- Ireland became a divided country.


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