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FIRST week of CHEM

by: Lyric Jamerson

FIRST week of CHEM CHEM 113

Lyric Jamerson
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About this Document

This is the notes for chapter 12 from week 1
General Chemistry II
Carlos Olivo-Delgado
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lyric Jamerson on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 113 at Colorado State University taught by Carlos Olivo-Delgado in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 9/12 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 11:01 AM What happens in the system, can be a reaction The system could be anything in our interest Studying heat or anything else in the system We also need to study the surroundings Opposite of what happens to the system Release energy Exothermic Surroundings are gaining that energy Boundary is diathermic Interchange of heat between surroundings and system Boundary is adiabatic No exchange of energy between system and surroundings Types of thermodynamic systems Physical or chemical process Open Matter and energy can go into and out of the system Example Coffee cup Open system Exchanging energy with surroundings Also exchanging water molecules Hot to the touch Closed system Can only exchange energy Lid on coffee cup Energy can go back and forth But the matter stays in the system and doesn’t share it with surroundings Isolated No energy or matter can be exchanged Types of Molecular Motion Three Types of motion Translation: movement through space Rotational: Spinning motion around axis perpendicular to bond Vibrational: Movement of atoms toward/away from each other As temperature increases. The amount of motion increases Bending Symmetric stretching Asymmetric stretching So what happens with the amount of molecular motion when temperature increases? As temperature increases, molecular motion also increases Work, Heat and Energy w = work Stimulates orderly motion q = heat Stimulates random motion Endo v. Exo Thermic Processes First Law of Thermodynamics Four laws of thermodynamics (zero,1 ,2 ,3) Zeroth If a is in contact with b and c is in contact with b then a is in contact with c. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, only transferred between the system and the surroundings. An exception occurs in nuc2ear processes where mass and energy are interchangeable as E = mc Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy is dispersed (becomes arranged in a more disorderly way) in any spontaneous process. For any spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe (the entirety of any system and its surroundings) must increase Going towards a state of less enthalpy and more entropy Less energy, more disorder Third law of thermodynamics At absolute zero (0 K) temperature, theoretically all modes of motion stops (no vibration, no rotation and no translation!) Thus, the 3 Law of Thermodynamics states that the entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero is 0. Spontaneous Processes Spontaneous process: A process that, once started, occurs without outside intervention Doesn’t require constant supply of energy Nonspontaneous Process: A process that only occurs as long as energy is continually added to the system Energy and needs constant supply of energy Go towards negative Spontaneity depends on dispersion of energy that occurs during a process. Depends on how dispersion is going to be Thermodynamics: Entropy Entropy (S): A measure of how dispersed the energy in a system is at a specific temperature Energy distribution affected by molecular motion, volume Second Law of Thermodynamics: The entropy of the universe increases in spontaneous process The universe is an isolated system Entropy increases with increasing temperature Is the process of water going to gas reversible? Yes Spontaneous reactions can be irreversible or reversible. Entropy is a measurement of the of the system. A. Randomness B. Internal energy C. Temperature Chapter 12 day 2 Friday, August 26, 2016 11:03 AM Factors Affecting Entropy Entropy increases with: Increasing p Temperature Increasing volume Increasing number of independent particles At what temperature does all molecular motion cease, and entropy equal zero? At zero absolute temperature (0k), entropy is zero This is also called the third Law of Thermodynamics Entropy and Microstates The motion of molecules is quantized: Different molecular states related to molecular motion are seperated by specific energies Energy state or Energy level: An allowed value of energy Microstate: A unique distribution of particles among energy levels Standard Molar Entropy 0 Standard Molar entropy (S ): The absolute entropy of 1 mol of a substance in its standard state at 298 K and 1 bar (~ 1 atm) of pressure Calculated from measurement of molar heat capacities as a function of temperature Entropy and structure Entropy increases as the complexity of molecular structure increases. More bonds, more opportunities for internal motion (more internal vibration motion.  Gases usually use 1 atm The Entropy of Mixing Same macrostate for the micro states


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