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Biology Lecture #1

by: Diya Gohil

Biology Lecture #1 01:119:116

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Biology > 01:119:116 > Biology Lecture 1
Diya Gohil

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These are the notes from the first lecture date 9.06.16
General Biology
Dr. Beal
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diya Gohil on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:116 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Beal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
Biology Lecture 1 09/06/16 Midterm 1: Sunday October 16 Midterm 2: Sunday November 13 Final: Saturday December 17 ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ I. Memory and learning  compare and contrast types of memory II. Workshop organization and how it relates III. Themes of biology compare and contrast major themes  recognize and identify emergence ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Memory and Learning  Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Neuronal Development  Overall structure of nervous system is established during development  Involves:  Gene expression (Bio 115)  Signal transduction (Bio 115 & 116)  Basic network of cells and connections within the nervous system are set. ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Neuronal Plasticity  Neuronal plasticity: ability of the nervous system to be modified after birth  Brain is dynamic and changeable  can be remodeled  Most remodeling occurs at synapses (the junction between neurons)  Changes are activity dependent ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Synapses- use it or lose it  High activity  many connections  Low activity lose connections  Multiple active synapses stronger response at all synapses Relationship with Autism  Developmental disorder  Appears in early childhood  Affected individuals display impaired communication and social interaction, repetitive behaviors  May involve disruption in activity-dependent remodeling at synapses ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Memory  Anatomical/ physiological event occurring at synapses  Dependent on neuronal plasticity and activity  Short term memory (STM) : info stored for a short time and is released if irrelevant or not used  Long term memory (LTM): activated when info needs to be retained when needed, retrieved into STM Memory is not equal to learning  Learning: use of knowledge/ experiences (memory) to decrease likelihood of a negative outcome  One does better as a result of learning Goals of Workshop  Improve ability to form memories  use memories to learn and problem solve  develop learning skills/techniques  *Take GB content to next courses and not have to process it again Achieve encoding  Achieving encoding: o Transfer from STM to LTM  Long term potentiation: Lasting increase in the strength of synaptic transmission – physiological changes o Facilitates memory and retrieval o Activity dependent o Learner needs to use information Long Term Potentiation Use of information is a sorting process Use  important  retained Not used  unimportant  discarded Discarded = no new synapses formed Stimulus  sensory memory storage Facilitated by organization Meaningful associations aid in memory formation Chunking: learning sets of related info rather than just one thing at a time Helps get info into memory Aids in retrieval LOOK AT FIGURE 49.21 _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________ LEARNING PROCESS Stimulus sensory memoryshort-term memory long term memory


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