Colonial America 1754
Colonial America 1754 History 2610
Popular in US History to 1865
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shibrena Sanders on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2610 at University of North Texas taught by Michael Leggiere in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see US History to 1865 in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Colonial America 1754 Introduction History of the Colonies, is viewed as English speaking white settlers th th traveling to America in the 16 and 17 centuries. Landing in the Atlantic Seaborg. American history began on the Atlantic Coast, they steadily headed westward to the Appalachian Mountains and the Ohio river by the end of the colonial period 1770’s. The belief is that the roots of America is Jamestown, that was settled in 1607 and Plymouth that was settled in 1620. According to earlier attempts by other powers Spanish, French, Swedish and other Europeans, this was not important or irrelevant until the 1960’s. The only role that the Native Americans played was to present a challenge to the settlers that came from England. American Exceptionalism is the making of new people in a new land. Immigrating to America, these settlers escaped a ridged customs and the society of England. Came to North America to find new opportunities. Ground work for American Exceptionalism, grown into the methodology. Very appealing, but overly simplified view of the United States. Peasants had a higher social status than from England. They don’t talk about all the failed colonies, Roanoke colony, or those that suffered at the success of the colonists: Native Americans, indentured servitude and slaves. This view is not as appealing. The roots of American Exceptionalism left this part out. Not all the colonist are English, some were Spanish, Swedish, Dutch, French, Russian. It also left out the Indian’s even though they are a major part of AE. Slavery was a huge portion of the governmental ideal and profit. Women too were not appreciated enough. There is a new view since the 1960’s, colonial society did create something different from the English society. Although this new society is a major difference from the previous colonial society. Colonial history was not an exclusive group of white people, but a very mixed group of all people. An unpresented group of people under extremely stressed situation. This created a new culture and it was very new and different from intermingling of three cultures. Native American, European, and African, provided the foundation for the culture we have today. One of the main differences from the old world was left out in the new world. In the old world it was based on where you were born, noble or commoner. 5% nobles and 95% commoners. Commoners provided the support for the nobles, they were the working class, or farmers. Two class system (social structure) comes from Feudalism, this idea has been around for thousands of years. Romans, got it from the Egyptians. That grew into Europe. This is the haves and haves not. The nobility controlled everything: church, military, and government. All you had to do was be born into a level. This idea did not cross the Atlantic Ocean, instead of birth being the determining factor, race became the primary way of arranging identity’s in the new world. Initially when the new world was being established, they assumed they were culturally superior to the inhabitants. Cultural Superiority was Christian and European. They believed they had to civilize the inhabitants and Africans they brought to the new world. One day they hoped these people would become civilized enough to be the commoners. A white consensuses emerged because of this a very polarized conception of race grew and as the political power of common white people grew, so did the idea. In the colonies there were differences between lower and higher class whites. That difference was never set in law, but the difference between races did as the political power of lower class whites grew. They worked in the militia. They formed common bonds of white solidarity. Their mission was to gain control of Native Americans and Africans. Race rather, than birth became the new methodology in the new world. As the colony unrevealed the wealth conceded greater social respect and political power to the lower class whites. Lower class whites were given greater respect and political power in the new world, enjoying unheard of opportunities and freedoms. This came at a price, the suppression of the Native population and the oppression of the Slave population. This aspect of the colonial experience was ignored, now it’s the dominant aspect of the colonial history. Pre-Columbia Civilization The way the world viewed the Native American cultures as unchanging until the European arrived. The European explorers in the 15 and 16 th centuries encountered a cert diverse array of Native Americans because the western hemisphere is diverse. Two contents, diverse climates, coastal plains, grasslands, harsh deserts, jungles, and mountain ranges because of the diverse climates this meant that there are diverse social and cultural patterns of Native Americans. The Native Americans started out as hunters and gathers, they eventually settled down fishing and farming. Culture evolved farming towns in the region of Mexico started in 2000BC. Corn, squash, chili peppers, pumpkins, and avocadoes. Among these groups, organized religion, government administration, art, and science grew. Then eventually this lead to war. Overtime these groups grew into cities and religion grew so much that temples and pyramids were built. The ruling class became so powerful that castles like things were created. Aztec, Inca, Mayan Empires grew, the most famous is the Mayan Empire. The Mayans developed math and astronomy, the Mayan civilization didn’t last until the 900AD, 10 century. It is believed that the over population, and over exploration of the rainforest collapsed the Mayan Empire. That gap was filled by the Aztec Empire ofthbout 4 million people. The height of the Empire was in the 1500’s, 16 century. Further, South the Incan Empire was situated right through the Andes Mountains, it was quite large, Chile to Columbia (modern day). Developed a system of roads and a centralized government, then disappeared. North America was not as developed. They were often at war and enslaved each other, ritualistic cannibalism was common. Developed divers cultures, in times of peace they would exchange ideas. Three shared beliefs were shared among all the tribes: Scarceness of nature Necessity of living in tribes Respect for Elders The largest region is the Mississippian Culture; the most common tribe is the Cahokia. About 10,000 people, the built the third largest pyramid in the western hemisphere. th By the 13 century, 1200’s, the older native cultures disappeared and a new wave of cultures rose up. On the eve of the arrival of the Europeans, there was much upheaval. When the Europeans arrived there was about 240 different tribes in North America (NA), about 4 million people. The major rivers allowed for transportation, there were also trails in which the Indians used for trade with each other. By the 1500’s there were three major regional groups: Eastern Woodland Tribes: Algonquian, Iroquois, Huron Great Plains Tribes: Blackfoot, Crow, Cheyenne, Comanche, Apache Western Tribes: Tillamook, Chinook, Pomo Each Tribe depended on agriculture for survival and the key cultural beliefs: Small game and gathering Hunting basin and raising corn Hunted Whales/Seals and fished Shows us that the tribes survived by adapting to changes in climate and environment. They were not static, but they were not by any means ready for the Europeans. Loss of life, millions killed disease and thousands by sword and shot. Many did survive and absorbed the change. Unlike the general trend in history of mankind (movement of man and killing of others, one being conquered another rising up.) The story in NA was a little more complicated that story of conquest and displacement. The played a crucial role in the origin of the United States. We need to view them as the victims and participants in the creation of NA. Indians were not static, they were adaptable and acceptable to change, but not ready for the Europeans.
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