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CHEM 1101, week 1 notes

by: Ashton Cress

CHEM 1101, week 1 notes CHE 1101

Ashton Cress

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About this Document

This material covers Scientific Method Apply the Scientific method to historic discoveries of Chemistry Fundamental Chemistry What is an atom and its structure Law of definite proportions Law...
Introduction Chemistry I
Dr. Brittany Lauren Woods
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashton Cress on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 1101 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Brittany Lauren Woods in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction Chemistry I in Chemistry at Appalachian State University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Scientific Method 1.) Ask a question 2.) Construct a hypothesis 3.) Test with experiments 4.) Analyze the results 5.) Formulate a conclusion The history of the atom ­Prior to 19th century, scientific progress was slow ­Over the course of time, enough data was collected to notice trends 1.) In any chemical compound, the element always combine in the same portion by mass a.) Water (H₂O): Mass of O is 8x larger than H b.) Ammonia (NH₃) will always have 1N to 3H c.) Law of Definite Proportions        2.) Mass is neither created nor lost       a.) Law of Conservation of Mass E.x. mass of chlorine ➗ mass of sodium = Ratio of Elements 4.22g of chlorine➗2.74g of sodium = 1.54 *Be sure to include 3 significant figures in your answer* Dalton’s atomic theory ­matter consists of tiny particles called atoms      *Democritus was right* ­In any sample of a pure element, all atoms have the same mass ­The atoms of different elements differ in mass and other properties ­When atoms of different elements combine to form compounds, new and more complex  particles form In a giving compound, the constituent atoms are always present in the same numerical  ratio ­atoms are indestructible Theory vs law Law(fact) Theory Hypothesis The boys of science Michael Faraday(1834): Matter was electrically charged J.J. Thompson (1897): quantitative measurements of charge Robert Milikan(1909): Measured electron charge to be negative, mass of electron can be    calculated Ernest Rutherford & Co (early 20th century): discovered atomic nucleus Subatomic Particles Neutrons: n° Protons: p+ Electrons: e­ Mass Number: A Atomic Number: Z (a.k.a. Number of protons) Periodic Table         Oxygen           8                           15.99949994 Name: Oxygen Atomic #: 8 Symbol: O Atomic mass: 15.9994 Or Mass #: 16 Atomic #: 8  Symbol: O Non­Neutral Elements An element can have a charge!!  How? ­Lose an e­ (more positive) ­Gain  an e­ (more negative) An element can have different mass numbers! How? ­Lose a neutron ­gain a neutron    Isotopes     C­14 12 14 13       ❑ 6 ,  6C ,  ❑ C6 *An element cannot lose a proton and be the same element!* E.x Neutral Oxygen has  8 protons          atomic # 8 8 neutrons       mass # 16 8 electrons      atomic mass 15.9994 Gains an electron…. 8 protons         atomic # 8 9 electrons       mass # 16 8 neutrons 16                   ­1 8 8 Isotope…. 8 protons      atomic # 8 8 electrons    mass # 15 7 neutrons 15 8 8 The mass number is the number of p+ + number of e­ The atomic mass= average mass of isotopes E.x O­16= 99.76% O­17= 0.037% O­18= 0.20% Mass vs Weight ­Chemistry is concerned with the properties and transformation of matter ­Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass ­ Mass= a measure of an object’s resistance to a change in motion ­cannot be measured directly ­doesn’t change unless something is added or taken away ­Weight= a force in which the object is interfered by gravity ­changes based on gravity ­measured directly by a scale


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