HNFE 1004 Chapter 2: Healthy Diet
HNFE 1004 Chapter 2: Healthy Diet HNFE 1004
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claudia Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HNFE 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Michelle Lewis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Foods, Nutrition and Exercise in HNFE at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 2 What is a food desert? • Place where people don’t have access to a variety of healthy foods o Often in urban area o Mari Gallagher= primary researcher Healthy Diets • Variety of foods • Balanced across food groups and macronutrients • Adequate amounts of all nutrients to promote health • Moderation and not overindulging Nutrient-Dense Foods- more vitamins and minerals, carbs, proteins, and fats Energy-Dense Foods- calorically dense foods • Water content in meals tends to give less calorie (energy) density a nd more nutrient density • Fat provides more calories per gram than any other macronutrient… high fat foods have high energy density o Some foods that contain fats are not evil- avocados The American Diet • Too many calories from saturated fats, refined grain s, and sodium (these things should be limited) • Don’t get enough fruits and veggies, whole grains, dairy, seafood, oils, fiber, potassium, vitamin d, and calcium • Excessive amount of energy -dense foods • Minimal amounts of nutrient -dense foods • All about convenience!! Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) • Updated every 5 years by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) • Huge committee comes together and does meta -analysis on different food groups and nutrients in the life and health of people • Next guidelines come out in 2020, the current guidelines came out in 2016 o Looks the same as the 2010 guidelines though bc of the damn government • Based on latest science based information about nutrition and health • Core of federal food and nutrition education programs • Shows to eat more healthfully and avoid chronic disease Key Messages from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 1. Increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors (balance calories consumed with physical activity) 2. Maintain appropriate calorie balance through each stage of life (control calorie intake and be active throughout life) 3. Increase vegetable and fruit intake 4. Eat a variety of vegetables - especially dark-green, red, and orange- and beans and peas. 5. Consume half of all grains as whole grains 6. Chose a variety of protein foods: fish, poultry, legumes, seeds, nuts, and eggs (choose leaner meats, not fat heavy red meats) 7. Replace solid fats with oils where possible 8. Reduce sodium intake (140 mg= low sodium in an item, AHA says go under 300mg) 9. Reduce the intake of solid fats and added sugars 10. Consume less then 300mg cholesterol a day 11. Consume less then 10% of calories from saturate fats 12. Keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible (.5g or less) 1992- food pyramid established The USDA updates tools to implement dietary advice Choose MyPlate • Guidance on how much to eat What’s a Serving? • Based on your estimated energy requirement (EER) My Plate = Balanced Diet My Plate gives Visual of Dietary Guidelines http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ Daily Food Plan Grain Serving Sizes 1/2 cup cooked pasta, rice, cereal 1/2 bagel, bun or English muffin 1 flour tortilla 1 slice bread 3 cups air-popped popcorn 1 oz. Pretzels 1 cup breakfast cereal **1/2 should be Whole Grains Refined Grains Cakes, cookies Poptarts, breakfast and granola bars Danishes, donuts Make more nutrient dense choices Limit Added Sugars Choose fiber-rich carbs Vegetable Group 1 cup cut up raw or 1 cup cooked vegetable 2 cup leafy raw vegetable 1 cup vegetable juice 1 cup cooked legumes ** Choose variety: Dark green, orange, legumes starchy, other Make ½ your plate fruits and vegetables Fruit Group 1 cup diced, frozen, cooked or canned 1/2 cup dried fruit 1 apple, banana, orange (2.5” – 3”) 1 med grapefruit (4”) 1 cup (8 oz.) O.J., other juices ** No more than 1/3 of intake from juices ** Make ½ your plate fruits and vegetables Proteins 1 oz = 1 oz meat/fish 1 egg ¼ cup beans, cooked 1 tablespoon peanut butter ¼ c cooked tofu ½ ounce nuts or seeds Choose fats wisely Dairy Group 8 oz milk or yogurt 2 cups cottage cheese 1- 1/2 cups ice cream 2 oz. processed cheese 1-1/2 oz. hard cheese 1/3 cup shredded ** Make fat free or low-fat choices. Switch to 1% or skim Solid Fat and Added Sugars Limit (Not a major food group) Oils Allowance Nuts, fish, cooking oil, salad dressing o Added calories but part of the total calorie allowance People choose foods based on many factors o Food Guides Around the World o Much of These are Plant -Based Diets Understanding the Food Label • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) • Nutrition Labeling and Educ ation Act (NLEA) o Requires standardized fo od labeling • Nutrition Facts Panel o Specific information about fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and some vitamins and minerals o Percent Daily Value (or %DV) o Ingredient list Approved Label Terms (Defined by FDA) o “Free"- less then 5 cal, les then .5g fat/sat fat, les then 5mg sodium o “Low”- less than or equal to 40 cal, less than or equal to 3g fat, less than or equal to 1g sat fat, less than or equal to 2mg chol, less than 140mg sodium o “High”- (rich, excellent source) greater than or equal to 20% of the daily value (based on a 2000 calorie diet) o “Good Source”- 10-19% o “Reduced”- 25% less as compared to another food o “Light” or “Lite”- color, 1/3 fewer cal, ½ fat, ½ sodium Claims Made on Foods and Supplements o nutrient content claim- describes the level of nutrient or dietary substance in a product using terms such as “good source,” “high,” or “reduced” o health claim- describes the link between a food, food component, or dietary supplement substance and reduced risk of a diseases o structure/function claim- describes the role of a nutrient or a dietary substance in maintaining health (heart healthy) New Food Label (in about a year and a half we will see this) o large print how many serving are in that container o serving size o LARGE print calories o Require info about added sugars o Daily values moved over to left side o 4 required nutrients are vitamin d, calcium, iron, and potassium o vitamin a and c no longer required because people now have proficient amounts so vitamin d and potassium replaced them because of the common deficiency (vitamin d linked with colon cancer)
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