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Bio 301

by: Sarah Griffey

Bio 301 Bio 301

Sarah Griffey
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About this Document

Physiology introduction and chemical makeup
Human Physiology
Sheldon Sharpe
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Griffey on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 301 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Sheldon Sharpe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at Eastern Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
PHYSIOLOGY Physiology is the study of how cells, tissues and organs function Homeostasis is a dynamic constancy of the internal environment of a living being -pH of blood: 7.35-7.45 -Blood Pressure: 120/80 -Body temp.: 98.6 Positive feedback: The change in the internal environment is re-enforced (rare) -Only occurs during giving birth as the vagina allows for the cervix to expand to fit the baby Negative feedback: the internal change is counteracted and opposed, making the internal environment return to its original state -Comparable to how a thermostat maintains temperature in a home Receptor: Responsible for sensing the change the body undergoes Control Center: Evaluates the change that has been sensed Effector: causes a change to correct the original change that occurred from stress. Disease: a change in homeostasis that no longer have the feedback mechanism to correct Pathology: the abnormality to structure Pathophysiology: how it relates to your body’s function Physiology  Due to its focus on function, there is an emphasis on cause and effect  When talking about physiology, life begins at the sperm fertilizing the egg (conception)  Four primary tissue types: 1. Connective 2. Muscle 3. Nervous 4. Epithelial Homeostasis  Stress, internally and externally, will cause the body to change  It is maintained by positive and negative feedback systems  Positive Feedback Negative Feedback  STRESS  RECEPTOR  CONTOL CENTER  EFFECTOR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE BODY  Atoms -made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons  Ions -Atoms that have gained or lost electrons, resulting in an imbalance making the atom positive or negative -Anions: an atom negatively charged because it has more electrons than protons -Cations: an atom positively charged because it has more protons than electrons  Molecules -Are based on the electrons on the most outer orbital (valence) interaction with 2 or more atoms -Types of bonding: 1. Covalent: occurs when atoms share their valence electron 2. Ionic: occurs when an atom completely transfers a valence electron 3. Hydrogen: the electronegativity interaction of hydrogen with oxygen, nitrogen and fluorine  Covalent bonding -When valence electrons are shared in a covalent bond, they are not always shared equally resulting in a polar or non-polar bond -Polar: Hydrophilic, water-soluble, imbalance between atoms sharing electrons -Non-Polar: Hydrophobic, water-resistant, equality between sharing atoms  Macromolecules -Large molecules the body uses to produce energy such as: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins  Cellular Energy -ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the bodies universal energy currency -ATP is broken down into ADP which releases energy that will power body processes -1 law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of energy: energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only transformed from one form to another -Carbohydrates: primary energy source in animals  Composed of monosaccharides to form long branched chain molecules  Glycolysis -Breakdown of glucose into two pyruvate -Glycogenesis: production of glycogen from glucose -Gluconeogenesis: production of glucose from “non-carbohydrate’ molecules -Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of the cell Pyruvate Glucose (3- (6- carbon) Pyruvate carbon) (3- carbon) -Pentose Phosphate Shunt: the process parallel to glycolysis  Results in ribose:5 carbon carbohydrates  NADPH -NET PRODUCTION OF 2 ATP AND 2 NADH  Krebs -The pyruvate (glycolysis) is converted into Acetyl CoA before entering the Krebs cycle -Krebs occurs in the mitochondria -NET PRODUCTION OF 2 ATP, 6 NADH, AND 2 FADH2 -Each NADH form about 2-3 ATP, creating a net of 22 ATP -Each FADH2 form 2 ATP, creating a net 4 ATP -KREBS CREATES 28 ATP  IN CONCLUSION… -One glucose molecule produces 36 ATP -During the transition from Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA, the 2 NADH molecules produce 6 ATP  Electron Transport chain “parts” -Membrane protein complexes -Membrane carrier proteins -ATP Producer  Lipids -primary energy store in animals -most high energy of the macromolecules -includes triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids -Beta oxidation- main method of fatty acid breakdown  Protein -Chains of different lengths and a variety of branching appearances -Made of amino acids via a peptide bond -Peptide bond- the bond of 2 amino acids  Primary: list of amino acids  Secondary: alpha helix, pleated sheet  Tertiary: geometric shape of a protein  Quaternary: combination of two or more chains


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