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Anatomy & Physiology - Cell Structure

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology - Cell Structure 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Cell Structure
Courtney Luber

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About this Document

These are the completed Cell Structure notes from 9/01 and 9/06
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Cell Structure  Cell o Latin – cella – chamber/storehouse o Definition – the basic living, structural and functional units of all organisms o If not made of cells, not living o 200 different types of cells in human body o 1 x 10 cells in the human body o Smallest cell is 2 microns (1 millionth of a meter) o Largest cell is more than a meter in size (neuron)  Cell Theory o Cell is structural and functional unity of life o Activity of organism is combined results of individual and aggregated cells o Activity of cells depends on subcellular composition  Structure and function  Principle of complementarity – the action of the cell is determined by the things the cell possesses o Cells are responsible for the continuity of life  Parts of a cell o Plasma membrane – separates inside from outside; limiting boundary  inside can have a different composition o Organelles – no cell possesses all organelles  Each carries out a specific function o Cytoplasm – fluid on inside of cell; intracellular fluid  Organelles suspended in this fluid  In order to be biologically active, all chemicals have to be in solution – cytoplasm keeps cells functional  Composition of Plasma Membrane o Phospholipid bilayer  Glycerol attached to phosphate and two fatty acids; polar heads (hydrophilic) and nonpolar tails (hydrophobic)  Half of the mass of the mass of the plasma membrane is the phospholipids, while the other half is from proteins o Integral proteins  Protein that goes through both parts of the bilayer  Mostly transport proteins – allow polar things to move into and out of the cell o Peripheral proteins  Protein that is only on one side of the bilayer; usually on inside  Mechanically natured – usually act as enzymes o Some proteins have a carbohydrate extension – glycoprotein  Carb part is basically a receptor o Carbohydrate chain can also attach to lipid – glycolipid  Still a receptor o Width of plasma membrane is 7-10 nm in size (7-10 billionths of a meter)  Very thin and fragile; proteins help hold it together  Functions of Plasma Membrane o Separate cells from the external environment o Insides can have a different chemical environment than outside o Facilitate contact with other cells or foreign substances o Provide receptor sites o Controls flow into and out of cell  Selectively permeable – allows some things to pass and prevents other things from passing o Determines what the internal environment is going to be like because of selectively permeable membrane  Determining Factors o Molecular size of the molecule  if too big, it generally can’t get in o Solubility  fat soluble substances can pass directly across the lipid part of the plasma membrane; water soluble things can’t o Ionic charge  something that has the same charge gets pushed away from the cell, while things with opposite charges get pulled near o Carrier molecules  Integral proteins that allow thing to pass  Membrane Transport Processes o Passive  No assistance from the cell; no energy needed  Follow a concentration gradient (high concentration  low concentration)  Small things move faster than big things o Active  Cell has to assist movement; provides ATP as energy for the process  Moves against the concentration gradient (low  high)  Passive Processes o Simple diffusion – the passive movement of a substance (liquid, solid, gas) from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until we reach equilibrium; then continued movement, but no net change  Nonpolar substances and lipids  Affected by molecular size, temperature o Facilitated diffusion – involves either a carrier or channel protein  No energy required, but protein is  Glucose, ions  Carrier proteins are specific to certain things; channel proteins are not – just has to fit o Osmosis – movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane  Is regulated by solute concentration and osmotic pressure  Tonicity  Isotonic o If the concentrations are equal o Net movement of water is 0  Hypertonic o The more concentrated solution  Hypotonic o The less concentrated solution o Water always moves from hypo- to hyper- o Tries to make the two solutions equal  Osmolarity o The tonicity (concentration; # of particles) * the number of particles we get when the substance dissociates o 1 molar saline solution is a 2 osmol solution o It’s the number of particles, not type of particle, that determines the movement of water o Filtration – movement across the membrane that is caused by pressure or gravity  Follows pressure gradient  Blood is filtered; higher blood pressure  filtered more  Active processes o Active transport – requires a carrier protein (specific to certain molecules)  Energy is required to change the shape of the protein  40% of energy produced by a cell is used by active transport  Low  high concentration o Exocytosis – cell has to create a vesicle  Vesicular transport – transport requiring a vesicle  Our cells produce something, a vesicle surrounds it, vesicle is phospholipid bilayer, and now since the bilayer is made of lipids, it meshes with the cells and is able to move out o Endocytosis – same process but used to move something inside the cell  Phagocytosis – engulfing of large solid molecules  i.e. macrophage consuming blood clots  Pinocytosis – engulfing liquid that contains some solid molecule(s)  “cell drinking”  Receptor-mediated endocytosis – when cell brings in something specific via receptors  i.e. want to bring in insulin, iron, or enzyme  there is a specific receptor for it  clathrin – protein coating on cytoplasmic face of vesicle o “clathrin-coated vesicles”  This is how flu gets into our cells  it binds to clathrin  Plasma Membranes Specializations o Microvilli – tiny projections on the free surface of the cell; increase surface area of cell  i.e. surface of intestines or kidneys o Tight junctions – when integral proteins bind to one another, it creates this  “impermeable junctions”  nothing can pass across these junctions o Desmosomes – when filaments on cell intertwine and hold each other together  “anchoring junctions”  See these in sheets of tissue where the cells are being exposed to tension such as friction  i.e. in heart, skin o Gap junctions - facilitate exchange between adjacent cells  “communicating junctions”  Can move from one cell directly into another cell; allow faster exchanges  Connexon – where the gap junction occurs  Allows cells to work as a group instead of as individuals  Membrane potentials o Differences in electrical charges across a membrane o Results from distribution of ions on both sides of membrane’  Predominantly potassium, sodium, and chloride o Can result in a voltage difference  Resting membrane potential o Sodium potassium pump- pumps potassium ions inside and sodium ions outside  More potassium inside than outside; more sodium outside than inside  More positive outside the cell than inside the cell – cell is negative; charge is negative o Cell is polarized, with inside negative compared to outside  Unequal movement of ions creates a polarity on each side of the cell which is regulated by plasma membrane  Parts of a Cell o Plasma membrane o Organelle  Organelle o Latin – organelle – tool; instrument o Specialized portion of cell that has a particular shape and does a particular task o Types:  Nucleus – largest intracellular structure; most cells only have 1; some don’t have any; some have more than 1 ; brain of the cell  Components: o Genetic material – material that controls structure and activity of cell o Nuclear envelope – phospholipid bilayer o Pores – holes in the membrane; things pass into and out of the nucleus o Nucleoplasm – solution inside of the nucleus o Nucleoli – spherical body inside nucleus; some have more than 1; assemble ribosomes which will then pass out of the pores into the cytoplasm (ribosomes - where proteins are made); does not have a membrane  Mitochondria – powerhouse of the cell; ATP producer; phospholipid bilayer  Can self-replicate  Possess their own DNA – mitochondrial DNA comes from only mom  Mitochondrial DNA can be used for relatability studies  Ribosomes  Nucleolus assembles ribosomes  Made of RNA and protein subunits  “Factory”  Site of protein synthesis  Tiny granules that can be found directly in cytoplasm or associated with other organelles  “attached ribosomes” – attached to something o Make proteins used outside the cell o “export proteins” o Makes plasma membrane proteins o Attached to endoplasmic reticulum  “free ribosomes” – not attached to anything; freely swimming in cytoplasm o Make proteins used within the cell  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Rough ER - attached proteins attached to ER o Makes proteins that are secreted from the cell o Makes integral proteins that become part of plasma membrane o Makes phospholipids of plasma membrane o Close to nucleus  Smooth ER – involved with lipid metabolism o Involved in production of steroid hormones o Associated with detoxification for the cell o Involved with the breakdown of glycogen  Golgi apparatus – “post office”  Proteins produced by rough ER make their way to the Golgi apparatus which modifies them slightly and packages them up for export  Puts it into a vesicle  exocytosis  Lysosomes –  Secretes enzyme contents and breaks the cell apart when cell gets old  Primary function is to contain enzymes which break down things that come into the cell during phagocytosis  Peroxisomes  Have enzymes that break down free radicals  Free radicals – hydrogen ions o Accumulation is toxic to cell  Free radicals converted to hydrogen peroxide (also toxic), so then it is broken down into water  Enzymes that detoxify  Enzymes produced in free ribosomes  Cytoplasm o Elements  Cytosol  Liquid part inside cell  Cytoskeleton  Microtubules – hollow protein tubules; distributes organelles within cytoplasm; gives some structure o Important when cell is getting ready to divide  Microfilaments – smaller; *the longer the word, the smaller the size* ; very thin strands; run near the surface of the cell/right inside plasma membrane o Change shape of the cell  Intermediate filaments – intermediate size; tough insoluble fibers that impart strength to the cell  Inclusions – things stored within cell  i.e. lipid stored within cell  i.e. glycogen; melanin; mucus  Cilia - extensions on plasma membrane  Extend on apical layer  Numerous tiny projections  i.e. on respiratory tract; in parts of the female reproductive tract  Flagella – single long extension  only human cell that possesses a flagella is sperm  Centrosome – point of attachment for microtubules; anchor point  Centrioles – modifications that appear during cell division and are part of mitotic spindle; migrate to opposite poles; attach to chromosomes and pull them to opposite poles


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