Biology 243 BIOL 243 001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Turner on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Lewis Bowmen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Anat & Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Vesicular Transport -Involves transport of large particles, macromolecules, and fluids across membrane in membranous sacs called vesicles -Requires cellular energy (ATP) Endocytosis: transport INTO cell 3 different types: Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor- mediated cytosis Exocytosis: transport OUT of cell Transcytosis: transport into, across, and then out of cell (IN, ACROSS, OUT) Vesicular trafficking: transport from one area or organelle in cell to another Endocytosis -involves formation of protein-coated vesicles -usually involve receptors; can be a very selective process substance being pulled in must be able to bind to unique receptor -some pathogens are capable of hijacking receptor for transport into cell -once vesicle is pulled inside cell, it can: 1. Fuse with lysosome 2. Undergo transcytosis Phagocytosis: “cell eating” -membrane projections called pseudopods form and flow around solid particles that are being engulfed, forming vesicle which is pulled into cell -form vesicle: phagosome -used by macrophages and other white blood cells phagocytic cells move by amoeboid motion where cytoplasm flows into temporary extension that allow cell to creep Pinocytosis: “cell drinking” or fluid-phase endocytosis -plasma membrane infolds, bringing extracellular fluid and dissolved solutes inside cell Fuses with endosome -routine and nonselective; used to “sample environment” -main way in which nutrients absorption occurs -membrane components are recycled back to membrane Receptor-mediated endocytosis: involves endocytosis and transcytosis of specific molecules -many cells have receptors embedded in clathrin-coated pits which will be internalized along with specific molecule bond Ex. Enzymes, low-density, lipoproteins (LDL), iron, and insulin unfortunately, viruses, diphtheria, and cholera toxins may also be taken into cell this way -Caveolae have similar pits and different protein coat from clathrin, but still capture specific molecules (folic acid, tetanus toxin) and use transcytosis Exocytosis: process where material is ejected from cell usually activated by cell-surface signals or changes in membrane voltage -substance being ejected is enclosed in secretory vesicle -protein on vesicle called v-SNARE finds and gooks up to target t-SNARE proteins on membrane docking process triggers exocytosis -some substances exocytosed: hormones, neurotransmitters, mucus, cellular waste
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