Tuesday 09/06/16 Lecture Notes
Tuesday 09/06/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
PSYC 1301 Seept6,,20116 Lecture Notes Class Info: Test this Thursday (next class) • Chapters 1 & 6 • Green 50 item scantrons (bring 2) • Pencil • Be on time • One seat between each person • Bring your ID Quiz due Sunday over chapter 2 Class Notes: Some experiments can have placebos E.g. Breast milk vs formula Encoding: Effortful Processing Strategies • Effortful processing strategy – a way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve • Effortful processing is also known as studying • Rehearsal o The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on day 2 • Memory Effects o Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time § Professor stresses studying more often over shorter periods of time o Serial position effect: when your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items § Don’t always start at the beginning of a chapter when studying § Begin at the middle or different spots • Rehearsal and Distributed Practice o Massed Practice – cramming information all at once. It is not time- effective o The spacing effect was first noted by Hermann Ebbinghaus in the late 1800s. You will develop better retention and recall, especially in the long run, if you use the same amount of study time spread out over many shorter sessions. § This is like trying to run 10 miles on your first day versus running several one miles. § When studying we cant study for 10 hours it is better to study for several individual hours separated by rest. o This doesn’t mean you have to study every day. Memory researcher Harry Bahrick noted that the longer the time between study sessions, the better the long-term retention, and the fewer sessions you need. PSYC 1301 Septt6,,2016 Lecture Notes o Testing effect – Henry Roediger found that if your distributed practice includes testing (having to answer questions about the material) you will learn more and retain more than if you merely reread • Encoding Meaning o Processing the meaning of verbal information by association it with what we already know or imagine. Encoding meaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding • Encoding Specificity Principle o When conditions of retrieval are similar to conditions of encoding, retrieval is more likely to be successful § Context effects • Tendency to remember information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting in which you originally learned the information • Environmental cues in a particular context are encoded as part of the unique memories you form while in that contest § Mood congruence • Factors related to mood or emotion o You want to study in the same condition as you will test in (i.e. sober, fully awake) • Levels of processing: Craik and Lockhart (1972) o Incoming information processed at different levels o Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes o Encoding levels § Structural – shallow § Phonemic – intermediate § Semantic – deep o You have to be consciously aware that you are studying to remember • Making information personally meaningful o We can memorize a set of instructions more easily if we figure out what they mean rather than seeing them as set of words o Memorizing meaningful material takes one tenth the effort of memorizing nonsense syllables o Actors memorize lines (and students memorize poems) more easily by deciding on the feelings and meanings behind the words, so one line flows naturally to the next o The self-reference effect, relating material to ourselves, aids encoding and retention • What we encode a. Encoding by meaning i. Make it relevant to the self! b. Encoding by images i. Think it through c. Encoding by organization i. Don’t passively read. Think. • Organizing information for encoding PSYC 1301 Seept6,,20166 Lecture Notes o Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories § Chunking § Hierarchies • Chunking o Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. § 1-7-7-7-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-4-9-1 § vs § 1-7-7-6 1-4-9-2 1-8-1-2 1-4-9-1 § Easier when you separate this into chunks • Encoding Long-term memories o Hints for studying based on encoding strategies § Make sure you understand the new information by restating it in your own words § Actively question new information § Think about the potential applications and implications of the material § Relate the new material to information you already know, searching for connections that make the new information more meaningful § Generate your own examples of the concept, especially examples from your own experiences • Memory Storage: Capacity and Location o The brain is NOT like a hard drive. Memories are NOT in isolated files, but are in overlapping neutral networks o The brain’s long-term memory storage does not get full; it gets more elaborately required and interconnected o Parts of each memory can be distributed throughout the brain • Explicit Memory Processing o Explicit\declarative memories include facts, stories, and meanings of words such as the first time riding a bike, or facts about types of bicycles o Retrieval and use of explicit memories, which is in part a working memory or executive function, is directed by the frontal lobes o Encoding and storage of explicit memories is facilitated by the hippocampus. Events and facts are held there for a couple of days before consolidating moving to other parts of the brain for long-term storage. Much of this consolidation occurs during sleep • Brain structures involved in memory o Prefrontal cortex o Hippocampus o Cerebellum o Amygdala o Medial temporal lobe • Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories • Emotions and Memory o Strong emotions, especially stress, can strengthen memory formation PSYC 1301 Seept6,,20166 Lecture Notes o Flashbulb memories refer to emotionally intense events that become “burned in” as a vivid-seeming memory o Note that flashbulb memories are not as accurate as they feel • Emotions, stress, Hormones, the amygdala, and memory o How does intense emotion cause the brain to form intense memories? § Emotions can trigger a rise in stress hormones § These hormones trigger activity in the amygdala, located next to the memory-forming hippocampus § The amygdala increases memory-forming activity and engages the frontal lobes and basal ganglia to “tag” the memories as important o As a result, the memories are stored with more sensory and emotional details § These details can trigger a rapid, unintended recall of the memory § Traumatized people can have intrusive recall that is so vivid that it feels like re-experiencing the event o Professor tells story of how one year he was mugged on Halloween o For a year of the professors life he only wore a superman suit • Summary: Types of Memory Processing • Why do we forget? o Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. We filter, alter, or lose much information during these stages. o One of the most common reasons for forgetting occurs when information is not encoded initially into long-term memory (encoding failure) PSYC 1301 Seept 6,20116 Lecture Notes o Failure to remember what needs to be done in the future involves a prospective memory error o Decay Theory § When a new memory is formed, it creates a distinct structural or chemical change in the brain (memory trace) § Memory traces fade away over time as a matter of normal brain processes o Challenges § Some research has shown that information can be remembered decades after it was originally learned § Ebbinghaus theorized that the rate of forgetting decreases over time • Storage Decay o Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve • Interference o Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information • The brain and the two-track mind: the case of Henry Molaison o In 1953, the removal of H.M.’s hippocampus at age 27 ended his seizures, but also ended his ability to form new explicit memories o H.M. could learn new skills, procedures, locations of objects, and games, but had no memory of the lessons or the instructors. • Studying brain damage and amnesia o Retrograde amnesia – refers to the inability to retrieve memory of the past o “H.M.” and “Jimmy” suffered from hippocampus damage and removal causing anterograde amnesia, an inability to form new long-term declarative memories § They had no sense that time had passed since the brain damage. While they were not forming new declarative memories, encoding was still happening in other processing “tracks” § Jimmy and H.M. could still learn how to get places (automatic processing), could learn new skills (procedural memory), and acquire conditioned responses § However, they could not remember any experiences which created these implicit memories • Two types of Amnesia o Retrograde amnesia – refers to an inability to retrieve memory of the past o Anterograde amnesia – refers to an inability to form new long-term declarative\explicit memories § Retrograde amnesia can be caused by head injury or emotional trauma and is often temporary § It can also be caused by more severe brain damage; in that case, it may include anterograde amnesia § H.M. and Jimmy lived with no memories of life after surgery • Why is our memory full of errors? PSYC 1301 Septt6,20016 Lecture Notes o Memory not only gets forgotten, but it gets constructed (imagined, selected, changed, and rebuilt) o Memories are altered every time we “recall” (actually, reconstruct) them. Then they are altered again when we reconsolidate the memory (using working memory to send them into long term storage) o Later information alters earlier memories o No matter how accurate and video-like our memory seems, it is full of alterations • Misinformation and Imagination Effects o Eyewitnesses reconstructed their memories when questioned about the event and they could not recall all the correct details Information you may have missed towards the end of class: • Implanted Memories o In one study, students were told a false story that spoiled egg salad had made them ill in childhood. As a result, many students became [even] less likely to eat egg salad sandwiches in the future o In a study by Elizabeth Loftus, people were asked to provide details of a incident in childhood when they had been lost in a shopping mall – even through there actually had been no such incident, by trying to picture details, most people cam to believe that the incident had actually happened o Lessons: 1. By trying to help someone recall a memory, you may implant a memory 2. You cant tell how real a memory is by how real it feels o Simply picturing an event can make it seem like a real memory o Once we have an inaccurate memory, we tend to add more imagined details, as perhaps we do for all memories o Why does this happen? Visualizing and actually seeing an event activate similar brain areas • Recovered memories of Past Abuse o Can people recover memories that are so thoroughly repressed as to be forgotten? o Abuse memories are more likely to be “burned in” to memory than forgotten o Forgotten memories of minor events do reappear spontaneously, usually through cues (accidental reminders) o An active process of searching for such memories, however, is more likely to create detailed memories that feel real. o “False” memories, implanted by leading questions, may not be lies. People reporting events that didn’t happen usually believe they are telling the truth o Questioners who inadvertently implant memories in others are generally not trying to create memories to get others in trouble PSYC 1301 Seept6,,20116 Lecture Notes o As a result, unjust false accusations sometimes happen, even if no one intended to cause the injustice • Déjà vu o Déjà vu means, “I’ve experienced this before.” o Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience • Problems with memory o Eyewitness testimony o Weak correlation between witness confidence in their testimony and its accuracy § Less accurate when • Observing others of a different race • Witness has talked to other witnesses • The observed situation is stressful (e.g. threatening, weapon involved) • Dual Task Performance – Do we multi-task will? o Divided attention is difficult when: § Tasks are similar § Tasks are difficult § When both tasks require conscious attention o Divided attention is easier when § When at least one of the tasks does not require conscious attention § Tasks are practiced • Improvising Memory o Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall o Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material o Make material personally meaningful o Use mnemonic devices: § Associate with peg words – something already stored § Make up a story § Chunk – acronyms o Activate retrieval cues – mentally recreate the situation and mood o Recall events while they are fresh – before you encounter misinformation o Minimize interference: § Test your own knowledge § Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know Exam Next Class – See Study Guide for Exam 1 for more Information.
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