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Intro to the mind

by: Shoshana Tamir

Intro to the mind Psyc 10300-02

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Psyc 10300-02 > Intro to the mind
Shoshana Tamir

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About this Document

foundation of what we are going to be learning
General Psychology
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shoshana Tamir on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 10300-02 at Ithaca College taught by Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Class 2 Notes Operational Definition: ­A precise definition of how a dependent variable will be measured in the experiment ­Clear enough that another research should be able to replicate the measurement  Group Project Measuring anxiety Dependent variable:  Anxiety they report on a scale  ­measured a few times a week Independent variable:  ­Exercise 3 times a week ­Exercise every day Control group: ­Not exercising  Experiment: we ask them to put their anxiety on a scale based on the amount they exercise  Inferential Statistics: Statistics   Descriptive Statistics o Collecting o Organizing  o Summarizing  o Presenting Data  Inferential Statistics o Making Inference o Hypothesis Testing  o Determining o Relationships o Making predictions  Mean: sum/# of items  Median: when all the numbers are in order and take the middle score  Mode: the number that is the most frequency (can be more than 1) Range: lowest and highest value Standard Deviation: the about of variation or dispersion of a set of data values Normal Distribution: Bell curve (ex. SAT’s) Shape of a Frequency Distribution 3 Types  Negatively Skewed o Falling lower than expected  Symmetrical Distribution o What was expected   Positively Skewed  o Falling higher then expected There is no logical reason for the 2 to be switched “that’s just  Review Questions: (End of the book) Improvement due to the expectation of improving because of receiving treatment. Placebo An inverse relationship between two variables. Negative correlation A description of the operations or procedures that a researcher uses to manipulate or measure a  variable   Operational definition A tendency, after learning about an outcome, to be overconfident in one’s ability to have  predicted it. Hindsight bias (I­knew­it­all­along phenomenon) The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution of scores. Range Pictures from teacher Class 3 notes Ch 2 Neuroscience  The structure of the neuron Between 2 Neurons New neurons keeps adding when being used, but if it is not used then they die There is a Refractory period so the neuron  doesn’t fire repeatingly Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine: involves in learning and memory and muscles  Poisons: Botulin, Curare, Widow Venom Dopamine: helps with arousal, mood state, and physical movements  Too little=Parkinson Awakenings: injecting Dopamine into the blood stream can’t get to the brain but by injecting L­Dopa can get into the brain and then turn into dopamine  Schizophrenia: (too much dopamine) voices in their head that are usually violent/  rare in children  Class Notes 4 Review of Wednesday  Serotonin and Norepinephrine ­involved with arousal, mood, sleep and eating ­Low levels causes Depression ­Medicine: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors  GABA and Glutamate  GABA­ inhibitory to anxiety and movement  o Keeps the brain from getting aroused o Low levels can cause epilepsy  Glutamate­ excitatory neurotransmitters o Too much can cause neurons to excite themselves to death o Too little = coma Endorphins ­Involved with pain relief and feelings of pleasure ­Ex. Morphine and heroin are agonists for endorphins PET scans ­ Radioactive glucose in metabolized by the more active neurons.  Thus you can detect  what areas of the brain are active during different tasks fMRI ­Does not use radioactive materials rather measures the amount of oxygen have more activation Nervous System and Endocrine­Fight or flight? Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain­ control center for the entire nervous system Spinal Cord­ the relay system for incoming sensory and outgoing motor commands Primary Areas of the Brain Phineas Gage Working on a rain road. There was an explosion and got a rod in the frontal lobe. He lived but  his personality completely changed Specialization of the 2 Hemispheres  Left is science Right is creative The brain is organized in 3 interconnected layers ­ central core o pons­ connects the medulla and thalamus o medulla­ autonomic, for vomiting, respiratory, cardiac o Reticular formation­ mediates consciousness o Cerebellum­ coordinates muscular activity o Thalamus­ relaying sensory info, pain perception ­ limbic system o Thalamus­ relaying sensory info, pain perception o Hypothalamus­ control body temp, thirst, hunger, homeostasis o Amygdala­ emotions o Hippocampus­ memory (short term) ­ Cerebral cortex The Case of HM Has part of his brain removed and lost his ability to make new memory’s but doing a task over  and over again it seemed like he was doing better Corpus Callosum Allows the left and right brain to send signals to each other Wernicke’s Area Broca’s Area Wernicke’s­ concerned with comprehension of language, damage in this area cause Wernicke’s  aphasia, characterized by fluent, grammatical speech but an inability to use or understand more  than the most basic nouns and verbs Broca’s­ a region of the brain concerned with the production of speech. Damage in this area  causes Broca’s aphasia, characterized by hesitant and fragmented speech with little grammatical  structure Peripheral Nervous System ­ Somatic­ sensory info input to CNS, movement output to skeletal muscles (ex. An ant on  your foot) ­ Autonomic – regulates organs, like the heart for breathing and stomach for digestion  ­ Sympathetic­ is activated during highly aroused states (ex. Fight or Flight) ­ Parasympathetic­ activated during normal rested states Endocrine System ­releases hormones to maintain normal internal functioning ­The hypothalamus controlpituitary glandthe other endocrine glands ­Thyroid­Metabolis ­Adrenal­ fight or flight ­sex­ testosterone or estrogen ­Pancreas­ sugar levels  Sleep In rem sleep their eye movements  You dream 5 times a night Ran out of Time


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