CAS 100A - Week 2 Notes
CAS 100A - Week 2 Notes CAS 100A
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christopher Cooke on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CAS 100A at Pennsylvania State University taught by Nikki Orth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Effective Speech in Communications at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
CAS 100A The Communication Model in a Rhetorical Situation Group 1: Define and describe: sender, message, meanings Sender: creates and transmits message Message: something being said or done; idea being conveyed to the audience Meanings: what we want the audience to understand or respond to What is the difference between cognitive meanings and emotional meanings? CM: words, hand gestures, facial experessions EM: things that you “feel” about something Can meanings be perceived by others? Why or why not? Yes – everyone interprets their own meanings Group 2: Define and describe: symbols, encoding, signs Symbols: words, hand signals, expressions Encoding: process of choosing the right ways to express symbols Signs: nonverbal expressions of meaning Are emotional meanings encoded? Why or why not? Emotional meanings are not encoded – they happen naturally How does a sender’s emotional state influence his or her message delivery? The emotional state of a sender can greatly influence his message delivery by necessarily altering the way in which they express signs and symbols Group 3: Define and describe: channel/medium, noise, personal traits Channel: how a message is sent and presented from listener to receiver (air, light) Noise: any sort of interference between listener and receiver Personal traits: a person’s interests, values, beliefs (etc.); determine how the message is presented What is the difference between external noise and internal noise? External cannot be controlled (loud noises, distractions) whereas internal noise can be (paying attention, selective attention) How could the medium influence the message? Visual vs. text – inability to actually “see” the speaker can change both the message and perception of the message Group 4: What happens after the message reaches the senses of the receiver? After the message reaches the senses of the receiver, the receiver internalizes and interprets the message. The internalization of the message – and further, the receiver’s perception of the message – can be altered by internal noise such as inattention or selective perception. Define and describe: decoding Decoding is described as the process of interpretation from the receiver’s standpoint. The receiver decodes a speaker’s message by interpreting the symbols and signs the speaker transmits, as well as the speaker’s behaviors; for example, body language, attitude, and posture. How does the receiver give meaning to both the symbols and signs? In perceiving a message, the receiver not only determines what the speaker says, but how the speaker says it. There are multiple levels of comprehension that go into understanding the message. Group 5 In what ways does the receiver interpret the message? Direct communication between two people – through body language; what the person is saying and how the speaker delivers the message Define and describe: feedback Feedback: message sent vs. message received What may cause communication breakdown? Communication breakdown can be caused by inattention, lack of understanding of subject matter, etc. The Rhetorical Situation 1. Exigence a. Imperfection, defect, or problem that can be corrected through the use of discourse; an issue that invites a rhetorical response b. Rhetorical message is a response to a problem or difficulty (practical) c. Problems that cry out for attention and require collective action for their resolution d. Can be both immediate (cat in a tree) and persistent (taxes are too fuckin’ high) 2. Audience a. Those who can be affected by discourse and who are capable of assisting in solving a problem b. Different audiences are responsive to different message strategies i. Design a different speech for each audience ii. May be several potential audiences, but you must figure out which one is primary – who is most in a position to hear and to act? 3. Constraints a. Factors that can limit or shape the communication process and the decision making of the rhetorical audience b. Contextual constraints: time limit, setting, law c. Audience constraints: psychological factors d. Speaker’s constraints: character, subject knowledge, skill, speaking style Situational Nature of Rhetoric “A rhetorical situation is one in which an issue or problem creates a need for communication” – Lloyd F. Bitzer People’s beliefs, attitudes, and behavior can be directly influenced through messages that diminish or resolve the problem Rhetoric exists when actions or change can be affected through speech. What are the set of conditions that allow for language to affect action or change? Responding to Rhetorical Situations Exigence creates the need for communication o Provides subject and objectives of a speech Emphasizes audience centrality o What power does the audience have to take action? o What do they already know and believe? Motivations? Biases? o Design a message that considers factors that shape how they interpret and respond Speaker selects a fitting response o Timing is key o Must address the exigence and form to the audience’s needs Fitting Response A speech act must respond to each of the elements of the rhetorical situation or it will fail to be persuasive or intelligible
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